Uyini umnotho

uyini umnotho

Ukuchaza ukuthi umnotho uyini akulula. Empeleni, yize inomqondo, igama ngokwalo liyinto ebanzi kakhulu futhi, kwabaningi, kunzima ukuyiqonda i-100%, ngisho nakwezazi zezomnotho ezingongoti.

Kodwa-ke, uma ubulokhu ufuna wazi ukuthi umnotho uyini, iyini inhloso yayo, yiziphi izinhlobo ezikhona nezinye izici zayo, khona-ke lokhu kuhlanganiswa esikulungiselele kungakusiza wehlise ilukuluku ozizwa ngalo ngale ndaba.

Uyini umnotho

uyini umnotho

Imiqondo yezomnotho miningi. Lokho okuqondakala kalula hhayi kangako. Uma siya kwa-RAE futhi sibheke igama elithi umnotho, incazelo elisinikeza yona yile elandelayo:

"Isayensi efunda izindlela eziphumelela kakhulu ukwanelisa izidingo zabantu, ngokusebenzisa izinto eziyivelakancane."

Lokhu sekuvele kuyicacisa kancane le nkinga, kepha iqiniso ukuthi miningi imiqondo ephathelene nomnotho. Ezinye zezinto eziphawuleka kakhulu yilezi:

"Ezomnotho yizifundo zesintu emsebenzini waso wansuku zonke." A. Marshall.

"Ezomnotho wukucwaninga ngendlela imiphakathi esebenzisa ngayo izinsiza eziyivelakancane ukukhiqiza izimpahla ezibalulekile futhi izabele abantu abahlukene." P. Samuelson (owawina iNobel Prize).

"Isayensi yezomnotho ngukucwaninga ngokuziphatha komuntu njengobudlelwano phakathi kwezindlela nezindlela eziyivelakancane futhi ezingangena kwezinye izindlela zokusetshenziswa." L. Robbins.

Lesi sakamuva singesinye esisetshenziswe kakhulu emkhakheni wezomnotho.

Sengiphetha, singakusho lokho ezomnotho isiyalo esifundisisa ukuthi izimpahla ezitholakala kubantu ziphathwa kanjani ukuze kwaneliswe izidingo. Ngasikhathi sinye, kuphethe nokuhlaziya indlela yokuziphatha nokuziphatha okwenziwa ngabantu maqondana nezimpahla.

Isibonelo, ezomnotho kungaba yilolo cwaningo olwenziwa emphakathini ukuthola ukuthi luhleleke kanjani ukwanelisa izidingo zabantu, kuzidingo zezinto ezibonakalayo nezingabonakali, ukubhekana nokukhiqizwa, ukusatshalaliswa, ukusetshenziswa kanye, , ukushintshaniswa kwezimpahla nezinsizakalo.

Izici zomnotho

Ngemuva kokubona izincazelo ezahlukahlukene zokuthi umnotho uyini, okungakucacela ukuthi zonke zinochungechunge lwezici ezifanayo. Lezi izi:

  • Phatha ezomnotho njengesayensi yezenhlalo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi, uma uqaphela, bonke bakhuluma ngokufunda ngokuziphatha komuntu njengomphakathi.
  • Funda izinsiza izwe elinazo. Lokhu kuyindlala, futhi kuzoya ngezidingo zomuntu ngamunye, kanye nokuziphatha kwabo, noma ngabe kuqediwe noma kwabiwa futhi kwasetshenziswa ngendlela efanele.
  • Cabanga ngezinqumo zezimali, ikakhulukazi ngoba ihlaziya ukuthi umuntu ubengaziphatha kanjani lapho kushoda okuthile okuhle noma insizakalo.

Uphuma kuphi

Izici zomnotho

Manje njengoba usunomqondo ongcono wokuthi uyini umnotho, kufanele wazi ukuthi umsuka waleli gama ungubani, nokuthi kungani wavela. Ukuze senze lokhu, kufanele sibuyele emiphakathini yasendulo eyayikhona eMesopotamiya, eGrisi, eRoma, empucukweni yama-Arabhu, amaShayina, amaPheresiya kanye namaNdiya.

Ngempela abokuqala ukusebenzisa igama elithi "umnotho" kwakungamaGreki, oyisebenzisile ukubhekisa ekuphathweni kwasekhaya. Ngalesi sikhathi, izazi zefilosofi ezinjengoPlato noma u-Aristotle zakha izincazelo zokuqala zomnotho ngenkathi, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, lo mqondo wapheleliswa. ENkathini Ephakathi, ngokwesibonelo, kwakukhona amagama amaningi anikele ngolwazi lwabo kanye nendlela yabo yokubona le sayensi, njengoSanta Thomas Aquinas, u-Ibn Khaldun, njll.

Kepha, empeleni, ezomnotho njengesayensi azivelanga kwaze kwaba ngekhulu le-XNUMX. Ngaleso sikhathi u-Adam Smith "wayeyicala" ukuthi umnotho wawuthathwa kanjalo ngenkathi ushicilela incwadi yakhe, "The Wealth of Nations." Eqinisweni, ochwepheshe abaningi bachaza ukuthi ukushicilelwa kwalokhu kwakungukuzalwa kwezomnotho njengesayensi ezimele, engahlangene nefilosofi uqobo.

Le ncazelo yezomnotho yaziwa namuhla ngokuthi ezomnotho zakudala, futhi kungenxa yokuthi manje sekunemigudu eminingana yezomnotho.

Izinhlobo zomnotho

Izinhlobo zomnotho

Ngaphakathi kwezomnotho, kungahlukaniswa izingxenye ezahlukahlukene, ngokwesibonelo, ngokuya ngezindlela, ngokwendawo yokufunda, imisinga yefilosofi, njll. Ngokuvamile, ungakanani umnotho owutholayo:

  • I-Microeconomics ne-Macroeconomics. Yimibono eyaziwa kakhulu futhi ibhekisele ezenzweni ezenziwa ngabantu, izinkampani kanye nohulumeni ukwanelisa izidingo nokubhekana nokushoda kwezimpahla (ama-microeconomics), noma ukutadisha kohlelo lukazwelonke nezenzo zezentengiselwano, izitayela kanye nedatha yomhlaba wonke isethi ephelele (macroeconomics).
  • Ezomnotho zethiyori nezobuciko. Elinye iqembu elikhulu yilona elihlanganisa umnotho wamamodeli anengqondo (okwezinkolelo-mbono) nalawo asekelwe "ngokoqobo" futhi aphikisana nemibono yangaphambilini (empirical).
  • Okuvamile futhi okuhle. Lo mehluko usekwe ngaphezu kwakho konke ekubeni komnotho. Yize eyokuqala ilandela ngokuqinile ezinye izinkambiso eziveza umnotho, kowesibili okwenzayo ukusebenzisa umqondo oguqukayo njengoba umphakathi nabantu beguquka.
  • I-Orthodox ne-heterodox. Kukhona umehluko ezingeni lezemfundo. Esokuqala sibhekisa ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kokuhleleka, umuntu, kanye nokulingana okukhona phakathi kwalaba bobabili; ngenkathi owesibili esitshela ngemisinga egxilisa ukutadisha kwabo ezikhungweni, emlandweni nasenhlalweni yomphakathi evelayo emphakathini.
  • Umnotho wendabuko, ophakathi nendawo, wemakethe noma oxubile. Kwabaningi, lesi yisigaba esihle kakhulu somnotho, futhi kusekelwe ezinhlotsheni ezine ezihlukene, okungukuthi:
    • Okwesiko: kuyinto eyisisekelo kunazo zonke, futhi ifunda ngobudlelwano phakathi kwabantu nezimpahla nezinsizakalo.
    • Ephakathi nendawo: ibizwa kanjalo ngoba amandla aphethwe ngumuntu (uHulumeni) futhi yiwo olawula zonke izenzo zomnotho ezenziwayo.
    • Imakethe: ayilawulwa nguHulumeni kepha ilawulwa ngokususelwa ekunikezelweni nasekufunweni kwempahla nezinsizakalo.
    • Kuxubile: kuyinhlanganisela yezinto ezimbili ezingenhla, okuhleliwe (noma okuphakathi) nemakethe. Kulokhu, kuyingxenye yokulawulwa nokulawulwa kukahulumeni.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.