Amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela

Amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela

Uwoyela uyigolide elimnyama emhlabeni. Amafutha ahambisa umhlaba: ngawo uphethiloli, ipulasitiki, kanye nezinye izinto ezenziwe. Yize ziningi amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela, ISpain akulona izwe elikhiqiza uwoyela, noma okungenani hhayi ngobuningi obukhulu, futhi kumele linikele ingxenye enkulu yezabelomali zonyaka ngamunye ukuwuthenga, uhlushwa ukuntengantenga kwamanani awo.

Isibonelo, le minyaka emibili edlule amanani kawoyela asezingeni eliphansi kakhulu okudala ukonga okukhulu kokungenisa amazwe afana neSpain ... kepha ukube bekenyukile, amanani abezokwanda ngochungechunge, aqale ngophethiloli futhi abangele umthelela empilweni yezwe.

Intengo kawoyela isethwe kanjani

Intengo kawoyela isethwe emgqonyeni ngamunye, esikhundleni samalitha noma amalitha, futhi njengoba uwoyela kuyinto enhle ezinzile, intengo yayo isethwe ngokususelwa ekunikezelweni nasekufunweni.

Konke kwaqala ngo-1960, ngenkathi kuthathwa iVenezuela, amazwe amahlanu, elinye lamazwe amakhulu kunawo wonke emhlabeni, ahlangana eBaghdad futhi asungula Inhlangano Yamazwe Athekelisa Uphethiloli. Njengamanje inamazwe ayishumi nantathu, amele ama-45% womkhiqizo womhlaba.

Amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela

Le nhlangano ilawula, ngokususelwa ekukhiqizweni kwayo, izinga likawoyela emhlabeni ukusetha intengo futhi ingavumeli isimo sayo esishubile sihlanye umhlaba wonke, njengoba kwenzeka ngeminyaka yama-70 ngenkinga kawoyela e-United States.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amazwe angaphandle kwenhlangano, njengeRussia, alawula ukukhiqizwa kwawo namanani ngokungahambisani, imvamisa esebenzisa amazwe abo amaklayenti njengesikhali somnotho, enza okufanayo nangegesi. Ngokulandelayo sizobona okungamazwe abaluleke kakhulu akhiqiza uwoyelas.

Amazwe amakhulu akhiqiza uwoyela

Amazwe kawoyela main Akuwona neze amalungu enhlangano edlule, kodwa empeleni angamalungu.

Uhla lwamazwe amakhulu akhiqiza uwoyela aluhlali lufana, empeleni, muva nje iVenezuela, elinye lamazwe aphakathi 'kwabayishumi abaphezulu' liwele kweleshumi nantathu, kwaba yimpikiswano yokuthi ngabe iyimbangela noma uphawu lwe Inkinga yaseVenezuela.

Ngokwemininingwane evela ku-CIA, sethula okuyinhloko amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela emhlabeni. 

Kuwait

Izwe leshumi ngobukhulu elikhiqiza uwoyela emhlabeni. Ukukhiqizwa kwayo kuzungeze imiphongolo kawoyela engaba yizigidi ezingama-2,7, futhi imele cishe u-3% womkhiqizo ophelele emhlabeni. Yathola impi ngenxa "yophenyo" olwenziwa nguSaddam Hussein ezweni ngo-1990, impi eyayidumile ePersian Gulf.

Izinqolobane zayo kulinganiselwa ukuthi zinesikhathi seminyaka eyi-100, okuyisisekelo semali esiqinile sezwe.

I-México

I-México yizwe leshumi nanye elithumela emhlabeni, futhi ikhiqiza cishe imiphongolo eyizigidi ezingama-2,85, enamathemba amakhulu ngenxa yezinguquko izwe elibhekene nazo nokutholakala kwemithombo kawoyela enezinqolobane ezinkulu esikhathini esizayo.

Imali etholakala ngokuthunyelwa kwayo uwoyela imele i-10% yemali engenayo yezwe lonke.

I-Iran

I-Iran ikhiqiza imigqomo eyizigidi ezingama-3.4, futhi ngenxa yezinqolobane zayo nemithombo engasetshenziswanga, kubhekwa njengezwe lamazwe abizwa ngokuthi 'amandla amakhulu'.

Leyo migqomo eyisigidi esingu-3.4 imele u-5,1% wamafutha wonke ahamba emhlabeni nsuku zonke. Imali etholakala kulokhu kuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe imele u-60% wemali engenayo ephelele yase-Iran.

Futhi lokho akubaliwe ezinqolobaneni zayo eziqinisekisa inani elikhulu lemali engenayo, hhayi ngamafutha kuphela, kodwa nogesi nomoya. I-Iran izonikeza okuningi okuzokhulunywa ngakho.

I-United Arab Emirates

I-United Arab Emirates yinhlangano ese-Arabia eyakhiwe yi-Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaima, Sarja kanye ne-Umm al-Qaywayn.

Ngokubambisana bakhiqiza imiphongolo ezungeze izigidi ezingama-3.5, ikakhulukazi ekhiqizwa yi-Abu Dhabi, iDubai neSarja, izikhungo eziyinhloko zokukhishwa ketshezi e-United Arab Emirates.

Banenqolobane yemiphongolo ebalelwa ezigidini eziyikhulu. Banemali eningi kakhulu ngenxa yayo yokuthi bayazivumela ukutakelana.

IDubai naphezu kwakho konke, ilungiselela ukuzikhulula emafutheni futhi isekele umnotho wayo ngokuncipha kuketshezi nokuningi kwezokuvakasha nakwezamabhizinisi.

Iraq

I-Iraq ijeziswa kanzima ngezinkinga zayo zezombangazwe, izingxabano zangaphakathi, i-Al-Qaeda, ukuhlaselwa kwakamuva kweDaesh, nezwe elijeziswe ngokungenelela kwezempi okuhlala iminyaka engaphezu kweyishumi.

Ngaphandle kwalokhu, i-Iraq Yizwe elinendawo yesihlanu enkulu yokugcina uwoyela emhlabeni, iningi lisezindimeni ezingashintshi, futhi ngaphandle kwalokhu, likhiqiza cishe imiphongolo eyizigidi ezine kawoyela, enikeza u-4% wamandla wezwe kanye nama-94% emali engenayo yezwe lonke.

Kulindeleke ikusasa elihle ezweni lapho lixazulula izinkinga zalo.

Canada

Elinye izwe laseNyakatho Melika ohlwini emazweni abaluleke kakhulu akhiqiza uwoyela.

ICanada ine-0,5% kuphela yabantu emhlabeni, kepha ikhiqiza ngaphezu kuka-5% kawoyela ohamba emhlabeni.

Ikhiqiza cishe imiphongolo eyizigidi ezingama-4,5, nokuthi izinqolobane zayo zifinyelela emiphongolweni eyizigidi ezingama-180.000, okuyindawo yesithathu enkulu yokugcina uwoyela emhlabeni.

'Inkinga' yaseCanada ukuthi iningi lezinqolobane zalo lisemiphandweni yetiyela, okwenza kube nzima ukukhishwa kwayo. Lapho ubuchwepheshe busenza ubuchwepheshe bokukhipha bushibhile, ukukhiqizwa okungcolile kwaseCanada kuzokhula.

China

Ukukhiqizwa kukawoyela ongahluziwe waseChina bekwenyuka ngokuqhubekayo eminyakeni engamashumi amahlanu edlule, kuthatha ukukhula okungalindelekile nokukhulu eminyakeni eyishumi nanhlanu edlule, ngenxa yokuvulwa komnotho okwenziwe nguhulumeni.

Ikhiqiza imiphongolo engaba yizigidi ezingama-4.6, kepha njengoba ukusetshenziswa kwayo kunesihluku, noma kunjalo, iyaqhubeka nokuba yizwe elingahlanzekile lokungenisa, ikakhulukazi kusuka eRussia nakwamanye amazwe ase-Asia nawase-Arab.

Izinqolobane zayo zilinganiselwe, cishe noma ngaphansi, imigqomo eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-20, kepha kulindeleke ukuthi ngenxa ye-fracking (fracturing fracturing) ukukhiqizwa kwayo nezinqolobane zayo kuzokhula kakhulu.

Rusia

I-Russia iyisidlakela kukho konke futhi ngamafutha besingazukuyithola isithende sayo i-Achilles.

Sus Imiphongolo kawoyela eyizigidi eziyi-11 imele u-13-14% wengqikithi okonakele ohamba emhlabeni.

Izinqolobane zayo zingokwesithathu ngobukhulu ezweni, kungabalwa konke okungahluziwe okufihliwe ngaphansi kweqhwa laseSiberia nasenyakatho neRussia, e-Arctic, futhi ngaphansi kweqhwa eliqinile futhi eliqinile.

Masikhumbule ukuthi iRussia imele, endaweni eyodwa, ingxenye yesithupha yendawo yonke yomhlaba, okusenza sibone ukuthi ayisebenzisi ngokuphelele yonke imali yayo.

I-Arabia saudí

Kuze kube muva nje bekungumkhiqizi ongahluziwe omkhulu kunabo bonke emhlabeni, enemiphongolo kawoyela ecishe ibe yizigidi eziyi-12. Izinqolobane zayo ezingcolile, zodwa, bamele ama-5% wezinto ezingcolile ezikhona namuhla emhlabeni, futhi ingxenye enkulu, kusasetshenziswa.

Ngoba ukukhiqizwa kwayo kwehlile ngokuthanda ezinye izinhlobo zamandla nophethiloli, ilahlekelwe indawo yokuqala.

United States

Ngenxa yokuqhekeka nokwanda kokuxhashazwa kwezindawo zayo zikawoyela, izwe lesithathu eNyakatho Melika lihola ezingeni lomhlaba cishe okungaba yizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-14. Ngenxa yokutshalwa kwezimali okukhulu kwezobuchwepheshe, bakwazile ukusebenzisa izindlela zesimanje zokukhipha ongahluziwe, njengasezihlabathini zetiyela naseshale.

Yize bengumkhiqizi omkhulu kunabo bonke ongahluziwe emhlabeni, banenkinga yaseChina: balanda inani elingcolile eliningi eMexico naseCanada, amanye amazwe amabili kawoyela, njengoba isidingo sabo siqhubeka nokudlula umthamo wabo wokukhiqiza.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Ukutshala imali ku-oyela: imakethe esebenzayo kakhulu ngo-2016

Amazwe anezinqolobane ezinkulu zikawoyela emhlabeni

Amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela

Akunjalo ukuthi izwe elikhiqiza uwoyela likwenza ube ngcono, mhlawumbe singabona amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela womhlaba enombono omkhulu: bona ukuthi yimaphi anayo, ngaphezu komkhiqizo omkhulu, indawo ebekiwe eqinisekisa isikhundla esinjalo nokuzinza esikhathini esizayo .

Amazwe anezinqolobane ezinkulu zikawoyela emhlabeni

(izinombolo ziyizigidigidi)

  1. IVenezuela - 297,6
  2. ISaudi Arabia - 267,9
  3. ECanada - 173,1
  4. I-Iran - 154,6
  5. I-Iraq - 141,4
  6. I-Kuwait - 104
  7. I-United Arab Emirates - 97,8
  8. I-Russia - 80
  9. ILibya - 48
  10. ENigeria - 37,2
  11. IKazakhstan - 30
  12. I-Qatar - 25,380
  13. I-United States of America - 20,680
  14. I-China - 17,300
  15. IBrazil - 13,150
  16. I-Algeria - 12,200
  17. I-Angola - 10,470
  18. IMexico - 10,260
  19. I-Ecuador - 8,240
  20. I-Azerbaijan - 7

Abathumeli abakhulu bakawoyela

Kuyadingeka ukwazi ukuthi yini i- amazwe anqume ukuthekelisa okuningi, futhi kusekelwe, empeleni, umnotho wezwe kumafutha. Sibona amacala anjenge-Iran, iMexico noma iVenezuela lapho ukwehla, njengalesi esihlangabezane nakho kulezi zinyanga, kuthinta kakhulu izabelomali zabo.

abakhiqizi bakawoyela

Ngalolu hlu lokugcina uzokwazi ukubona kangcono impilo yamazwe nokuthi iliphi elilawula kahle uwoyela wawo.

  • E-Afrika: Algeria, Angola, Libya neNigeria.
  • EMiddle East sineSaudi Arabia, i-United Arab Emirates, i-Iraq ne-Kuwait.
  • ENingizimu Melika sine-Ecuador neVenezuela.

Futhi ekugcineni, abakhiqizi abakhulu nabathumeli ngaphandle, abangewona amalungu e-OPEC, sineCanada, iSudan, iMexico, i-United Kingdom, iNorway, iRussia ne-Oman.

Ngabe uhlu lwe amazwe akhiqiza uwoyela ngokuhamba kwesikhathi? Kungenzeka kepha iningi lethu esilibonile belibeka phezulu ishadi lokukhiqiza iminyaka ngakho ushintsho ngeke lwenzeke noma nini maduzane.

Amazwe amakhulu adla uwoyela

Ngakolunye uhlangothi lwemali, sinamazwe adla imigqomo eminingi nsuku zonke. Kwezinye izimo, njenge-United States, yize iphakathi kwabakhiqizi abakhulu bakawoyela, isadinga ukungenisa uwoyela omningi kunalowo owukhiqizayo. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ukufunwa kwayo kusese kukhulu kunomkhiqizo engakunikeza. Ukubukisisa nokuthola umbono womhlaba wonke walesi simo, singabona ohlwini olulandelayo ukusetshenziswa kwansuku zonke kwezwe ngalinye, kanye nokusetshenziswa okujwayelekile kukawoyela ngeyunithi ngayinye yezakhamizi.

ukusetshenziswa kwamazwe ngosuku ngalunye ezinkulungwaneni zemigqomo

Ngemininingwane etholwe ngo-2019, ngo-2018, bekuyiyo le imiphongolo (ngezinkulungwane) esetshenziswa ngosuku ngezwe ngalinye:

  1. I-United States: 20.456
  2. I-China: 13.525
  3. ENdiya: 5.156
  4. EJapan: 3.854
  5. ISaudi Arabia: 3.724
  6. ERussia: 3.228
  7. EBrazil: 3.081
  8. INingizimu Korea: 2.793
  9. ECanada: 2.447
  10. EJalimane: 2.321
  11. E-Iran: 1.879
  12. EMexico: 1.812
  13. E-Indonesia: 1.785
  14. UK: 1.618
  15. EFrance: 1.607
  16. IThailand: 1.478
  17. ISingapore: 1.449
  18. I-Spain: 1.335
  19. E-Italy: 1.253
  20. E-Australia: 1.094

Yiziphi izinto ezithonya lokhu kwehluka?

Ngakolunye uhlangothi kukhona inani labantu futhi ngakolunye izinga lomcebo wezwe ngalinye. Lapha singayichaza ngemali engenayo yomuntu ngamunye. Lokhu kuchaza ukuthi kungani i-United States, ngaphandle kokuba izwe elinabantu abaningi, idle uwoyela omningi (cishe imiphongolo engama-22 ngosuku ngesakhamuzi ngasinye). Eqinisweni, inani labantu lisebenzise ngokwesilinganiso esiphindwe kabili ukuphindwe kabili kwalokho umuntu angakudla kukho I-Spain (cishe imiphongolo eyi-10 ngosuku ngesakhamuzi ngasinye). Futhi yingakho amazwe anabantu abaningi kakhulu kepha anemali ephansi kakhulu yomuntu ngamunye njengeChina idla uwoyela omncane kune-United States.

Isibonelo, iChina neNdiya banabantu abacishe bafane, i-India inabantu abambalwa. Kodwa-ke, izinga lomnotho waseChina liphakeme, yingakho ukusetshenziswa kukawoyela nakho kwakuphezulu.

Umgqomo ngamunye kawoyela ubiza ngokwesilinganiso esilinganisweni samanje cishe ngama- $ 55, isilinganiso esingadluliselwa ku-2018. Ukusetshenziswa kwemiphongolo eyi-1.335.000, okuyilokho iSpain eyisebenzise ngosuku, kwakubiza u- $ 73.500.000 nsuku zonke.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-5, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UJose Angel Quintanilla D kusho

    Luthini usuku lokushicilelwa kwalesi sihloko?

    1.    inqola kusho

      Kuthunyelwe nguSusana Maria Urbano Mateos ngoJulayi 6, 2016, 11:16 ekuseni

  2.   UDANY DANIEL kusho

    Ntambama, ungangisiza ngemininingwane kawoyela ongahluziwe onikezwa amazwe athumela uwoyela.

  3.   SUZEL kusho

    Ngiqonde ukuthi kuphelile ekujuleni komhlaba ukupholisa nokunciphisa amapuleti ama-tectonic ukugwema ukuzamazama komhlaba nokufudumala komhlaba umbono wami ngaphakathi kokungazi kwami

  4.   U-Augustine kusho

    i-athikili enhle kakhulu