I-IPC: iyini futhi ikuthinta kanjani ukutshalwa kwezimali?

ipc

Elinye lamagama asetshenziswa kakhulu kwezomnotho okwamanje yi-IPC. Kodwa ingabe siyazi ngempela incazelo yalo yangempela? Yebo, iyahambelana nesichasiso senkomba yamanani wabathengi, futhi yinani lezinombolo elikhombisa ukwehluka kwamanani esikhathini esinikeziwe. Ngethonya elithile ezimakethe zezimali kanye nokuvela kwamanani emakethe yamasheya. Kulesi simo esivamile, kungaba yipharamitha ethembeke kakhulu ukungena noma ukuphuma ezimakethe zezezimali ngeziqinisekiso ezithile zempumelelo.

I-CPI futhi ilulwazi olubaluleke kakhulu lokubuyekeza amaholo nezimpesheni ezweni lethu. Ukuthatha isinqumo sokukhula kwayo, ikakhulukazi uma amazinga enkomba yamanani wabathengi ephakeme kakhulu. Ngisho ukunquma i- inqubomgomo yezimali yezwe noma lendawo, futhi ngalomqondo isibonelo esihle kunazo zonke yindima i-European Central Bank (ECB) ebiyithuthukisa ukukhuthaza ukukhula endaweni ye-euro. Futhi phambilini ukuphuma enkingeni enkulu yezomnotho eyenzeka phakathi kuka-2007 no-2008.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, inkomba yamanani wabathengi nayo inquma kakhulu ukuba njengomthombo wenkomba okwaziwa kakhulu njenge "ibhasikidi lokuthenga". Ngoba empeleni, nge-CPI siyazi ukuthi le ngxenye ebalulekile yomnotho wasekhaya uthuthuka kanjani. Futhi noma kunjalo, kuzothinta ukulungiswa komndeni noma isabelomali somuntu siqu, njengoba bonke abasebenzisi bazi. Ngakho-ke, inkomba yentengo yabathengi inemithelela eminingi kunalokho ongakucabanga kusukela ekuqaleni.

Ukuguquka kwezintengo zabathengi

izimali zokukhokha

Izinga lonyaka le-Consumer Price Index (CPI) yangoJanuwari liyi-1,0%, okuyisilinganiso esiphindwe kabili kweshumi kunaleso esibhaliswe ngenyanga edlule, ngokusho kwamanani akamuva ahlinzekwe yiNational Institute of Statistics (INE). ithonya elibi okugqame ekwehleni kwesilinganiso sonyaka yilokhu okulandelayo:

Ukudla neziphuzo ezingadakwa, eyehlisa ukwehluka kwayo konyaka izilinganiso ezine zokwishumi bese ikubeka ku-0,9%, ngenxa yokuzinza kwamanani ezinhlanzi nezimbaza, uma kuqhathaniswa nokwenyuka okubhaliswe ngonyaka we-2018. Kumele futhi kuphawulwe, yize kukwelinye uhlangothi, ukwanda amanani entengo yemidumba nemifino, eyehle ngonyaka odlule, ngokombono walo mbiko osemthethweni.

Ukuthutha, ngesilinganiso esingu -0,2%, izine ezine ngaphansi kwaleyo yenyanga edlule, ngenxa yokuthi amanani kaphethiloli kanye nezinto zokuthambisa anyuke kancane kule nyanga kunangoJanuwari 2018.

Ezokungcebeleka namasiko, okushintshashintsha kwawo minyaka yonke kwehle ngesishiyagalombili kokuyishumi, kuya ku- -0,9%, ngenxa yokwehla kwamanani wamaphakeji ezokuvakasha, okuyinto enkulu kule nyanga kunangoJanuwari wonyaka odlule.

Umthelela omubi enkombeni

Ngalo mqondo, kunezingxenye ezithile ezikhiqize idatha engagculisi kangako ngalesi sikhathi futhi ezinomthelela ezindlekweni zokuphila ezikhulile. Ngokuqondene nesibonelo, i ukuthi siveza ngezansi:

Ukugqoka nezicathulo, ngesilinganiso esingu -15,4%, esikhombisa umphumela wokuthengiswa kwasebusika. Umthelela wayo kwi-CPI ejwayelekile ngu -1,037.

Ezokungcebeleka namasiko, okuhlukahluka okungu - -2,3% kunomthelela we --0,190, futhi okugqugquzelwayo, ikakhulukazi, ukwehla kwamanani amaphakheji ezivakashi.

indawo yokuhlala, okwethule isilinganiso esingu -0,6% kanye nomphumela we -0,076, ngenxa yokwehla kwamanani kagesi futhi, ngezinga elincane, udizili wokufudumeza nogesi.

Umndeni, okubeka ukwehluka kwayo ku- -0,5%. Ukwehliswa kwamanani entengo yendwangu yasendlini kuvelele kulokhu kuziphendukela kwemvelo. Umthelela waleli qembu enkombeni ejwayelekile ngu -0,028.

Amahhotela, amathilomu nezindawo zokudlela, Isilinganiso saso esingu -0,2%, esinomthelela we -0,022, sidalwa ukwehla kwamanani ezinsiza zokuhlala. Kumele futhi kuphawulwe, yize kwenzeka kolunye uhlangothi, ukukhuphuka kwamanani ezindawo zokudlela.

Amanani emiphakathi ezimele

kubhasikidi

Esinye sezici ezifanele kakhulu okufanele sizinake enkombeni yamanani abathengi ukuthi ayihambelani. Uma kungenjalo, kunalokho, kuyehluka kuye ngomphakathi ozimele kuya komunye futhi kwesinye isikhathi ngamandla okuheha ukunakwa okuningi, kubacwaningi bezomnotho nakubasebenzisi uqobo. Ngalo mqondo, nangokwemininingwane yakamuva esemthethweni enikezwe yiNational Institute of Statistics (INE), kusobala ukuthi izinga lonyaka le-CPI lehle emiphakathini eyi-14 eyayizimele ngoJanuwari uma kuqhathaniswa noDisemba futhi yahlala kuleyo emithathu esele.

Ukwehla okukhulu kwenzeka eCastilla-La Mancha, ngeconsi leshumi kweshumi. Ngokwengxenye yabo, imiphakathi egcina isilinganiso sonyaka yi-Illes Balears, iComunidad Foral de Navarra nePaís Vasco. Njengophawu lokuguquguquka kwezomnotho nokuthi yonke i-CPI iyonke inquma enye yemingcele efanelekile esimweni sempilo somnotho wezwe. Isibonelo, kulokhu owaseSpain. Ngaphandle kokunye ukucatshangelwa kobuchwepheshe okufanele kuhlaziywe kwenye i-athikili kunkomba yamanani abathengi.

Inkomba Yamanani Ahlanganisiwe (HICP)

Kungokunye okuhlukile kwenkomba yamanani abathengi futhi kubhekisa enkomba yezibalo yokufaneleka okukhethekile futhi inhloso yayo ukuhlinzeka isilinganiso esivamile sokwehla kwamandla emali esivumela ukuqhathaniswa kwamazwe ngamazwe. Ukuze ngale ndlela futhi kungenzeka kuhlolwe ukuhambisana kulolu daba oludingwa yi Isivumelwano seMaastricht yokungena kwi-Monetary Union. Ngokombono, kungaba ipharamitha yezomnotho ethonya elikhulu ezindlekweni zokuphila ezweni.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi ngoJanuwari owedlule izinga lokuhlukahluka lonyaka le-HICP lalimi ku-1,0%, okubili kokukodwa okungaphansi kwenyanga edlule. Ngakho-ke, ukwehluka nyangazonke kwe-HICP kulesi sikhathi sokuhlaziya kungu -1,7%. Ngenkathi kwenzeka okuphambene nalokho, ngenyanga kaJanuwari isilinganiso sonyaka sokuhluka kwe-CPI kuye Izintela ezihlala zikhona (I-CPI-IC) imi kuma-0,9%, okungaphansi kweshumi elilodwa kunaleso esibhaliswe yi-CPI jikelele. Izinga lokuhluka nyangazonke le-CPI-IC libe ngu- -1,4% kulesi sikhathi esihlaziyiwe. Ngokwengxenye yayo, i-HICP e-Constant Taxes (HICP-IC) iveza isilinganiso sonyaka esingu-1,0%, esifana naleso se-HICP.

Izinkomba zamanani ezehlukene

dinero

Njengoba kungenzeka ubonile kule ndatshana, enye yezimpawu ze-CPI ukuthi yethulwa ngaphansi kwamafomethi ahlukile, njenge-Constant Taxes (IPCA-IC). Futhi lokho kuzosiza ukuba nombono ongokoqobo ngokwengeziwe ngesimo sezomnotho womndeni. Akumangalisi ukuthi kuphela ukwanda kwenqola yokuthenga, kepha isimo sangempela semalimboleko yempahla ebanjiswayo noma ngisho nezindleko ezenzeka kwimikhiqizo yokwenziwa kwemithi. Futhi lokho kungasetshenziselwa ohulumeni ukuthatha izinyathelo zomnotho noma ngisho nezinyathelo zabasebenzi noma zosizo emikhakheni ebincishwe amathuba kakhulu emphakathini.

Ngakho-ke, inkomba yentengo yabathengi ibaluleke kakhulu kunabasebenzisi abaningi abakholelwa ekuqaleni. Ngokungafani ne- ithonya ekutshalweni kwemali ithuthukiswe ezimakethe zokulingana. Lapho izehlakalo zayo zincipha ngenxa yezimbangela ezahlukahlukene lokho kuzoba yindaba yeminye imibhalo. Kunoma ikuphi, akusizi ngokweqile ukuthi amanani emakethe yamasheya akhuphuke noma awe ngokuya ngalezi zilinganiso zomnotho. Njengoba kubonwe kuzinkomba eziyinhloko zezimakethe zezimali.

Imiphumela yebhizinisi emakethe yamasheya

Imiphumela yebhizinisi yezinkampani ezisohlwini lwezimakethe zokulingana iba nomthelela omkhulu emakethe yamasheya. Ngalo mqondo, ulwazi olubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi izinkampani ezakha i-Ibex 35 zavala ngonyaka odlule nge ukwanda kwenzuzo. Le mininingwane ifaka phakathi imiphumela yezinkampani ezingama-35 ezakha okukhethiwe. Izinkampani ezibhalwe ohlwini zikwazile ukunqoba izindawo zokuhlala eziyinkimbinkimbi kanye nesimo esinzima somnotho abadlula kuso. Kepha izinga lokukhula kwenzuzo yalo lehlisiwe maqondana nezinyanga eziyishumi nambili zonyaka we-2017.

Izinkampani ezisemkhakheni kagesi ziphinde zahola inzuzo, ngokunyuka okungaba ngu-5%, nokukhula kwemali engu-9%, uma kuqhathaniswa no-4% wezindleko. Le yimininingwane elandelwa kakhulu ngabatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi abanomthelela omkhulu empilweni yezomnotho yezinkampani uqobo kunokunyuka kwezindleko zempilo. Futhi lokho kungasetshenziswa nakwezinye izimakethe zamazwe ngamazwe zokulingana, njengoba kukhonjisiwe eminyakeni yamuva. Futhi lokho kunquma ukuthi umzuzwana kukhona ukucindezela kokuthenga noma ukuthengisa.

Izinkampani ezibhalwe ohlwini zikwazile ukunqoba izindawo zokuhlala eziyinkimbinkimbi kanye nesimo esinzima somnotho abadlula kuso. Kepha izinga lokukhula kwenzuzo yalo lehlisiwe maqondana nezinyanga eziyishumi nambili zonyaka we-2017.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.