Ungayilungisa kanjani iphothifoliyo yesikhwama sokutshala imali ye-2020?

Ngemuva kwe-hiatus ngo-Agasti, izimakethe zathola ngoSepthemba ukuthambekela okuhle kwezinyanga ezedlule, kwavumela izimali zokutshala imali ukuthi zikhuphule izimpahla zazo ziye ezigidini ezingama-270.153 zama-euro, ezimele ukwanda ngoSepthemba cishe ama-euro ayizigidi eziyi-1.500 (0,6% ngaphezu kwenyanga edlule), ngokusho kwedatha yakamuva evela ku-Association of Collective Investment Institutions and Pension Funds (Inverco). Lapho kukhonjiswa khona ukuthi ezinyangeni eziyisishiyagalolunye zokuqala zonyaka wezi-2019, izimali zokutshalwa kwezimali ziqongelele ukukhula okungu-4,9% (12.638 million ngaphezu kukaDisemba 2018).

Manje-ke isikhathi esifanelekile sokuba abatshalizimali babheke ukuthi bangayenza kanjani iphothifoliyo yesikhwama sokutshala imali esilinganisiwe futhi elinganiselayo lapho kubhekwa khona iqiniso lomnotho okwamanje. Lokho wukuthi, ukwehla komnotho, amanani wenzalo emazingeni amabi kanye ne ukuphuma kweGreat Britain kwi-European Union futhi yaziwa ngokuthi yiBrexit. Vele, yizinto eziguqukayo ezintsha ezizonquma ukuthi sikhetha izimali zokutshala imali ezifaneleke kakhulu kunezinye.

Inhloso yaleli su lokutshala izimali akuyona enye ngaphandle kokuthi ukwazi ukugcina inzuzo ngezikhathi ezithile eziyinkimbinkimbi ukuze izintshisekelo zabatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi. Kuphi ukuphepha kumele kuze kuqala ngenhla kolunye uchungechunge lokuhlola okunolaka okufanele kususwe kusukela manje ukugwema izimo ezingafuneki. Kulo mongo, kunezinhlanganisela eziningi ezingenziwa ngezimali zokutshala imali. Kepha noma kunjalo, sizonikezela ngemibono emihle kakhulu ukuze sikwazi ukuthola inzuzo ethokozisayo kulondolozo.

Amaphothifoliyo Esikhwama

Izimpahla ze-equity azikwazi ukungabi khona lapho kulungiselelwa iphothifoliyo yethu elandelayo yokutshala imali. Kepha kuzo zonke izimo ukukhetha kakhulu ekukhetheni kwabo futhi lokho kuzoba ukhiye wokuthi singaba nenzuzo ethe xaxa kusuka manje. Ngalo mqondo, izimali eziyimali ziyingxenye yezimali ezingasinikeza inzuzo enkulu kakhulu, yize ifaka izingozi ezithile ekusebenzeni. Indlela yokubhekana necebo lethu lokutshala imali kufanele ihlose ukuthola izinkontileka izimali ezahlukahlukene  ukunikezwa kokuhwebelana kwamasheya kuzwelonke nakwamanye amazwe njengefomula yokonga izimali zethu ezitshaliwe.

Ngalo mqondo, esinye seziphakamiso ezinhle kakhulu okwamanje senziwa iphothifoliyo elinganiselayo lapho i- Izikhwama zase-US naseYurophu ngokulunga. Ngaphandle kobukhona bezimakethe ezisafufusa, okuthi, nakuba zinamandla amakhulu okukhula, kube izimakethe zezezimali ezingase zihlupheke kakhulu esimweni esinciphile njengaleso esivele kusukela manje kuqhubeke. Ukuze ngale ndlela, ubungozi bungaqedwa ezimakethe zezimali, kwezinye izimo kucace ngokungenasidingo.

Ngamanani wokuzivikela

Elinye isu lokutshala imali okufanele sibhekane nalo lihlobene nezokuphepha ezakha lezi zikhundla. Kuzoba kubaluleke kakhulu lokho zivela emikhakheni evikelayo lokho kungenza kangcono ezimeni ezimbi kakhulu ezimakethe zezimali zokulingana. Njengesibonelo, lezo ezivela kugesi, izimpahla zabathengi, imigwaqo emikhulu nakwezinye izinkampani zokusabalalisa. Akungabazeki ukuthi lokhu kwakhiwa kuzonciphisa kakhulu izingozi ezingabanjwa ngabatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi. Ukuze inzalo esinayo ekupheleni konyaka ikwazi ukuba ngaphezulu uma iqhathaniswa nezinye izinhlobo zokutshalwa kwezimali ezikhwameni.

Omunye umqondo othakazelisa kakhulu kubatshalizimali abathengisayo ukukhetha izimali ezicabangela i- Ukusatshalaliswa kwesahlukaniso yizinkampani ezisohlwini. Kuzoba esinye isiqinisekiso sokugwema izimo ezingaphezu kwezinzima ezinyangeni noma ngonyaka ozayo. Akumangalisi ukuthi ukusebenza kwayo kungaba ngcono kunamanye amanani wemakethe yamasheya ngakho-ke asikwazi ukwenqaba lesi siphakamiso esingasinikeza izinzuzo eziningi kusukela manje. Ngokwezinga lokuthi kunezimali zokutshala imali ezincike kuphela kulesi sici sezibambiso. Kokubili emkhakheni wezimakethe zokulingana zikazwelonke nangaphandle kwemingcele yethu.

Qaphela kakhulu imali engenayo engaguquki

Ngaphandle kwalokhu okunye okutshalomali okuncane naphakathi nendawo okukholelwa njengamanje, ukutshalwa kwemali emholweni ongaguquki akuphephile neze. Uma kungenjalo, ngokuphambene nalokho, nangokomongo wamanje, kungaphinde kuqinise isimo sethu maqondana nezwe eliyinkimbinkimbi lemali. Ngengozi ephakeme ukwedlula leyo yamasheya, into engazange yenzeke kwezinye izikhathi, kepha manje nasebusweni be ukunqwabelana kwesikweletu Kungasinika isimanga esingaphezu kwesisodwa esibi nganoma yisiphi isikhathi. Ngeke sibe nokukhetha ngaphandle kokuthi sisebenze kakhulu ngale mpahla yezezimali ngaphakathi kwezimali zokutshala imali.

Ukugwema izimo ezingadingeki kubatshalizimali, isiphakamiso esihle kakhulu ukukhetha izimpahla ezinokwethenjelwa ezingaba yisiphephelo kulezi zimo. Enye yezinto ezinconywe kakhulu yizibopho zase-US, ezingase zibe nozinzo olukhulu kulo mbono wezomnotho omusha osilindele kusukela manje. Lapho ungakhipha khona imbuyiselo yonyaka ecishe ibe ngu-2% noma u-3%. Kunoma ikuphi, kufanele kufakwe kuphothifoliyo elandelayo yokutshala imali esizoyithuthukisa ezinyangeni ezizayo. Njengezibopho zaseJalimane, yize kungaphansi kokuncane, njengoba zingakwazi ukumelana kangcono nalesi simo sezomnotho ngamathemba amahle okukhula.

Izimpahla ezihlukile

Abatshalizimali abanolaka kakhulu bangafaka ezinye izindlela zokubambisana ezingenza kangcono kunayo yonke imakethe. Ikakhulu, kulabo abasuselwa kokunye izinto zokusetshenziswa ezifana uwoyela, igolide, isiliva noma igesi. Yize futhi kuyiqiniso impela ukuthi izingozi zalo ziphakeme kakhulu kunezinye izimpahla zezezimali. Kepha ngenzuzo yokuthi abanye babo bacwiliswe ekuthambekeni okucaca phezulu, njengasendabeni ethile yensimbi ephuzi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, futhi isebenza njengendawo ephephile yezimo ezimeni zobuthakathaka obukhulu kakhulu ezimakethe zezimali.

Ngenkathi ngakolunye uhlangothi, kungaba inketho ethakazelisa kakhulu yokwenza ngcono izindlela zokulamula zezimali zokutshala imali. Njengokhiye wokuchaza ifayela le- ukuziphatha okungcono kwezinye izikhundla zokutshala imali ngaphezu kwezinye nokuthi ngemuva kwakho konke kufanele kube enye yezinjongo zethu eziyinhloko eminyakeni ezayo. Kumele kuqashelwe futhi ukuthi ezinye izimpahla zezimali zibonakaliswa ukungazinzi kwazo okuphezulu futhi lokhu kungenza kube nzima ngathi ukuthi sitshale ezimweni ezimfushane zaphakade.

Izikhwama zokusika ezivikelekile

Kepha kunoma yikuphi, kungaba yisixazululo esihle kakhulu ukuzama ukuthi amandla ethu okuthenga awehli ezinyangeni ezizayo ngenxa ukungazinzi ezimakethe zamasheya zomhlaba wonke. Kepha ungalokothi kuphothifoliyo lapho abatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi abancane bokusika okulondolozayo noma okuvikelayo bezothuthuka. Phakathi kwezinye izizathu ngoba kungadala inkinga engaphezu kweyodwa ezinyangeni ezizayo ngenxa yokuguquguquka kwentengo. Okungafanele bakwenze ukuthembela isu elincike ekuqageleni ezimakethe zezimali ezilinganayo.

Kulezi zimo, kungcono ukuya kwesinye isikhwama semali kodwa wazi ukuthi ngeke kusinikeze inzuzo noma kuwe kuzoncipha impela. Kepha kuzosebenza okungenani ukuze abatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi bangalahlekelwa yimali ezikhundleni zabo, isici okufanele nakanjani sibalule amasu okuvikela kakhulu lapho ukuphepha nokulondolozwa kokonga kudlula konke. Le yinhloso kuphela okufanele ibhalise isikhwama sokutshala imali ngalezi zici nokuthi ngakolunye uhlangothi yilabo abanekhomishini ephansi, kanye nezindleko zokuphathwa noma ukunakekelwa kwayo. Kepha ngokuqashwa okuncane eminyakeni yamuva njengokushoda kwenzalo kubasebenzisi.

Inzuzo yesikhwama

Ngemuva ukungabaza okwenziwe ngenyanga ka-Agasti, izimakethe zezezimali zathola ngoSepthemba ukuthambekela okuhle kwezinyanga ezedlule, futhi zavala ikota ngembuyiselo enhle kuzinkomba eziyinhloko zemakethe yamasheya, ngokusho kwedatha yakamuva evela ku-Association of Collective Investment Institutions and Pension Funds (Inverco) .. Kulokhu Inkomba yokulinganisa yaseSpain i-Ibex 35 ivelele, okwathi ngoSepthemba yathumela imbuyiselo enhle engaphezulu kuka-4%, yize amanye ama-indices nawo athumela izimbuyiselo ezinhle.

Esimeni sokuzinza okukhulu, i-IRR yesibopho seminyaka eyi-10 yaseJalimane inyuke yaya ku -0,57% isuka ku -0,70% ngenyanga edlule futhi isivuno sesibopho seminyaka eyishumi saseSpain sikhuphuke kancane saya ku-10%. Imali ekhokhelwa ubungozi eSpain yehlisiwe futhi yavalwa ngenyanga kuma-0,13 bps (ama-73 bps ngo-Agasti). Izinga lokushintshaniswa le-euro uma liqhathaniswa nedola livalwe ngo-83, okusho ukuthi ngenyanga yesithathu elandelanayo imali yaseMelika ithole ukubuyekezwa okucishe kube ngu-1,09% uma kuqhathaniswa ne-euro. Njengenye yezinketho zokuthatha izikhundla eminyakeni ezayo.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.