Lithini izinga lomsebenzi kwaye yintoni ifomula yalo

ifomula yezinga lomsebenzi

Omnye wemigaqo enokukunika umdla kakhulu ukubona ukuba ilizwe linesalathiso esilungileyo sengqesho okanye akunjalo lizinga lomsebenzi. Ifomula yayo kulula ukuyibala kodwa kufuneka ucace malunga neengqikelelo zazo zonke izikhombisi eziza kudlala.

Ngoku, ngaba uyazi ukuba yintoni ifomula yesantya somsebenzi? Kwaye sithetha ukuthini ngale nto? Apha sikuxelela yonke into omawuyazi ngaye. Fumanisa!

Lithini izinga lomsebenzi

umsebenzi wesinyithi

Ukuba siya kwiRAE (iRoyal Spanish Academy), kwaye sijonge eli gama kuyo, isichazi-magama sisinika le nkcazo ilandelayo:

«Isalathiso esichazwe njengepesenti esilinganisa ubunzulu bengqesho kunye nekhono lokuvelisa ilizwe, libe yi-quotient phakathi kwabantu abasebenzayo kunye nabemi beminyaka esebenzayo».

Sisalathiso se-macroeconomic esisetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ipesenti yabantu abasebenzayo (abathetha ngokwezoqoqosho) ngokwenani labantu lilonke. Le yokugqibela ingathathwa ngokusekelwe kuluntu oluzimeleyo okanye ngokusekelwe kwilizwe, ngoko ke idatha yokusetyenziswa kwifomula iyahluka.

Noko ke, simele sinikele ingqalelo koko kubizwa ngokuba ngumntu okhutheleyo kwezoqoqosho. Kule meko, yaye ngokutsho kweILO (International Labour Organization), aba baya kuba ngabantu abaqeshiweyo nabangasebenziyo. Ukuthathela ingqalelo ukuba:

Abantu abaqeshiweyo ngabo banemisebenzi, ngoko ke bayinxalenye yomsebenzi wezoqoqosho. Apha akwahlulwanga phakathi kwabasebenzi bexesha elizeleyo nabexeshana, kodwa bonke bebeya kungena.

Abantu abangaphangeliyo ngabo bangasebenziyo, nabafuna umsebenzi ngokukhutheleyo (ukuba abakwenzi oko, baya kuthathwa njengabantu abangasebenziyo).

Nangona kunjalo, kuyafuneka ukwazi ukuba ngabantu abakwiminyaka yokusebenza. Aba bantu baneminyaka eyi-16 ubudala okanye ngaphezulu kwaye, ngoko, banokusebenza kakade, kungakhathaliseki ukuba benza njalo okanye akunjalo. Ngamanye amazwi, umntu oneminyaka eyi-16 sele ewela ngaphakathi kweli qela, kodwa oko akuthethi ukuba ukhuthele ukusebenza (okanye ukukhangela umsebenzi).

Kutheni izinga lomsebenzi libalulekile?

Ngoku unombono omncinci wokuba lithini izinga lomsebenzi. Kodwa mhlawumbi awuboni ukuba ibaluleke kangakanani na. Kule meko, le datha isalathiso sezalathiso zoqoqosho lwelizwe okanye ummandla.

Ukongeza, kumaxesha amaninzi ifomula yesantya somsebenzi iyatshintsha. Kwaye kukuba bayenza ngokwahlula abantu abasebenzayo phakathi kwamadoda nabasetyhini, abancinci nabadala, inqanaba lezifundo ... Enceda ukuseka eyona migaqo-nkqubo yengqesho yaloo ndawo.

Ikwalixabiso elibonisa ukuba ngaba kukho abantu abakhutheleyo abangaphezu kwentswela-ngqesho enokubakho, oko kukuthi, bangaphi abantu kwabali-100 abakwaziyo ukuba nomsebenzi okanye bawukhangele ngokukhutheleyo.

Ithini ifomula yezinga lomsebenzi?

Amadoda emsebenzini

Xa ubala izinga lomsebenzi, kukho ifomula. Nangona kunjalo, oku kuthathela ingqalelo abantu beminyaka yokusebenza, okanye ngaphezulu kweminyaka eyi-16 ubudala. Yeyiphi leyo? Iya kuba ngabantu abasebenzayo.

Kwaye oku kufunyanwa ngokongeza abantu abasebenzayo kunye nabemi abangaphangeliyo.

Ngamanye amazwi. Khawube nomfanekiso-ngqondweni welizwe ukuba kukho abantu abasebenzayo abazizigidi ezili-13 yaye abazizigidi ezi-5 abangaphangeliyo.

Ngokwefomula yabemi esebenzayo, zombini kuya kufuneka zongezwe. Koko kukuthi:

Abemi abasebenzayo = Abemi abaqeshiweyo + Abantu abangaphangeliyo

PA = 13000000 + 5000000

PA = 18000000

Ngale datha, ngoku kufuneka sazi abantu beminyaka yokusebenza, oko kukuthi, abantu abangaphezu kweminyaka eyi-16.

Oku kufunyanwa ngokongeza inani labantu abasebenzayo nabangasebenziyo. Sicinga ukuba sinezigidi ezingama-31 ezingasebenziyo, ifomula iya kuba ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

Abemi beminyaka yokusebenza = Abemi abasebenzayo + Abantu abangasebenziyo

I-PET = 18000000 + 31000000

I-PET = 49000000

Ngoku sinokukunika izinga lomsebenzi. Ifomula yayo yile ilandelayo:

Izinga lomsebenzi = (Abemi abasebenzayo / Abemi beminyaka yobudala okanye ngaphezulu kweminyaka eyi-16) x 100

TA = (18000000 / 49000000) x 100

TA = 0,3673 x 100

AT = 36,73%

Ngamanye amazwi, kwi-100 ngalinye, ama-36,73 anomsebenzi okanye afuna umsebenzi.

Ngubani opapasha idatha yezinga lomsebenzi

Ukuba ufuna ukwazi idatha yeSpeyin ngokwezinga lomsebenzi (kunye nezinye izinto eziguquguqukayo), ngoko kufuneka uye kwiNational Institute of Statistics (INE).

Ukwenza oku, kuqhutywa uphando lwekota, i-Active Population Survey (EPA), kunye nokukhethwa kweentsapho (zizonke, malunga neentsapho ezingama-65000, ezinokuba ngabantu abangama-180000) ukufumana ulwazi malunga nemarike yemisebenzi (kunye no. ezinye iinguqu).

Umzekelo weFomula yesantya soMsebenzi

iqela elisebenzayo labantu

Masihambe nomnye umzekelo ukuze ukwazi ukubala njani ukuba awukwazi ukufumana idatha.

Unabemi abaqeshiweyo abazizigidi ezili-17. Ngokwenxalenye yayo, abangaphangeliyo bazizigidi ezi-4 kwaye abangasebenziyo bazizigidi ezili-11.

Into yokuqala ekufuneka uyazi ukuba yintoni na abantu abasebenzayo, oko kukuthi, isimbuku sabaqeshwa kunye nabangasebenziyo.

PA = 17 million + 4 million

PA = 21 million.

Ngoku kufuneka sazi ukuba yintoni na abantu abakwiminyaka yokusebenza, ngakumbi iPET.

Eli nani lifunyanwa ngokongeza inani labantu abasebenzayo kunye nabemi abangasebenziyo. Ngamanye amazwi:

I-PET = Abemi abasebenzayo + Abantu abangasebenziyo

I-PET = 21 yezigidi + 11 yezigidi

I-PET = 32 yezigidi.

Ngoku ukuba unayo abemi abasebenzayo kunye nabakwiminyaka yokusebenza, sibala izinga lomsebenzi:

TA = (Abemi abasebenzayo / Abemi beminyaka yokusebenza) x 100

TA = (21 million / 32 million) x 100

TA = 65,62%

Ngamanye amazwi, kubantu abali-100, kukho abangama-65,62 abanomsebenzi okanye abawufunayo.

Njengoko ubona, ifomyula yezinga lomsebenzi ilula ukuba unayo idatha oyifunayo. Kwaye ngaphezu kwayo yonke into, inokukunceda ubone ukuba ilizwe linemveliso ngokwengqesho (okanye ukukhuthala ukukhangela umsebenzi) okanye hayi. Ngaba ukhe waliqonda izinga lomsebenzi?


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