Yintoni uqoqosho

yintoni uqoqosho

Ukuchaza into ayiyo uqoqosho akukho lula. Ngapha koko, nangona inombono, igama ngokwalo liyinto ebanzi kwaye, kuninzi, kunzima ukuyiqonda i-100%, kwanakwiingcali zezoqoqosho.

Nangona kunjalo, ukuba uhlala ufuna uyazi ukuba yintoni uqoqosho, iyintoni injongo yayo, zeziphi iintlobo ezikhoyo kunye nezinye izinto zayo, emva koko olu luhlu silwenzileyo lunokukunceda uzolise umdla onawo malunga nesihloko.

Yintoni uqoqosho

yintoni uqoqosho

Iingcamango zoqoqosho zininzi. Ezo kulula ukuziqonda hayi kakhulu. Ukuba siya kwi-RAE kwaye sijonge uqoqosho lwexesha, inkcazo esisinika yona yile ilandelayo:

"Inzululwazi efunda ezona ndlela zisebenzayo ukwanelisa iimfuno zabantu, ngokusebenzisa izinto ezinqabileyo."

Oku sele kucacisa umba kancinci, kodwa inyani kukuba zininzi iingcinga malunga noqoqosho. Ezinye zezona zibalulekileyo zezi:

"Uqoqosho sisifundo sobuntu kwimisebenzi yaso yemihla ngemihla." A. Marshall.

"Uqoqosho kukufunda ngendlela apho iindawo zoluntu zisebenzisa izixhobo ezinqabileyo ukuvelisa izinto zexabiso nokuzihambisa kubantu abohlukeneyo." P. Samuelson (Ophumelele amabhaso kaNobel).

"Isayensi yezoqoqosho sisifundo sokuziphatha komntu njengobudlelwane phakathi kweziphelo kunye neendlela ezinqabileyo nezinokubakho ekusebenziseni ezinye iindlela." L. Robbins.

Le yokugqibela yenye yezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu kwikhondo lezoqoqosho.

Ukuqukumbela, sinokuthi Uqoqosho kukuziphatha okufunda ukuba iimpahla ezikhoyo ebantwini zilawulwa njani ukwanelisa iimfuno. Kwangelo xesha, ikwayiyo ejongene nokuhlalutya isimilo kunye nezenzo ezenziwa ngabantu ngokunxulumene neempahla.

Umzekelo, uqoqosho iya kuba seso sifundo siqhutywa eluntwini ukuze sazi ukuba silungelelaniswe njani ukwanelisa iimfuno zabantu, kokubini kwiimfuno zezinto ezibonakalayo nezingasetyenziswanga, ukujongana nemveliso, ukuhanjiswa, ukusetyenziswa kunye, ekugqibeleni, utshintshiselwano ngempahla kunye neenkonzo.

Iimpawu zoqoqosho

Emva kokubona iinkcazo ezahlukeneyo zokuba yintoni uqoqosho, into enokucaca kuwe kukuba bonke banoluhlu lweempawu ezifanayo. Zezi:

  • Phatha ezoqoqosho njengenzululwazi yezentlalo. Kungenxa yokuba, ukuba uyaqaphela, bonke bathetha ngesifundo sokuziphatha komntu njengoluntu.
  • Funda izixhobo ezinelizwe. Oku kunqabile, kwaye kuya kuxhomekeka kwiimfuno zomntu ngamnye, kunye nokuziphatha kwabo, nokuba kugqityiwe okanye kusasazwa kwaye kusetyenziswa ngokufanelekileyo.
  • Thatha izigqibo ngezemali, ngakumbi kuba ihlalutya indlela umntu anokuziphatha ngayo xa kunqongophele into ethile elungileyo okanye inkonzo.

Uvelaphi

Iimpawu zoqoqosho

Ngoku ukuba uyiqonde ngcono into yokuba yintoni uqoqosho, kufuneka uyazi ukuba yintoni imvelaphi yekota, kwaye kutheni ivela. Ukwenza oku, kufuneka sibuyele kwimpucuko yamandulo eyayikho eMesopotamiya, eGrisi, eRoma, eArabhu, eTshayina, ePersi naseIndiya.

Ngokwenene abokuqala ukusebenzisa igama elithi "uqoqosho" yayingamaGrike, owayisebenzisa ukubhekisa kulawulo lwasekhaya. Ngeli xesha, izithandi zobulumko ezinjengoPlato okanye uAristotle baqulunqa iinkcazo zokuqala zoqoqosho ngelixa, ngokuhamba kwexesha, le nto yagqitywa. KumaXesha Aphakathi, umzekelo, bekukho amagama amaninzi abenegalelo kulwazi lwabo nakwindlela yabo yokubona le sayensi, njengo-Saint Thomas Aquinas, Ibn Khaldun, njl.

Kodwa, enyanisweni, uqoqosho njengenzululwazi aluzange luvele kude kube ngekhulu le-XNUMX. Ngelo xesha u-Adam Smith "wayengoyena nobangela" wokuba uqoqosho lwaluthathelwa ingqalelo xa wayepapasha incwadi yakhe, "Ubutyebi beZizwe." Ngapha koko, iingcali ezininzi zichaza ukuba ukupapashwa koku yayikukuzalwa kwezoqoqosho njengenzululwazi ezimeleyo, engadibananga nefilosofi uqobo.

Le nkcazo yezoqoqosho yaziwa namhlanje njengezoqoqosho lweklasikhi, kwaye kungenxa yokuba ngoku kukho iindlela ezininzi zoqoqosho.

Iindidi zoqoqosho

Iindidi zoqoqosho

Ngaphakathi kuqoqosho, ukwahlulahlulwa kwamacandelo ahlukeneyo, umzekelo, ngokweendlela, ngokweendawo zokufunda, imisinga yefilosofi, njl. Ngokubanzi, yintoni uqoqosho olufumanayo:

  • Microeconomics kunye neMacroeconomics. Zezona ngcinga zaziwayo kwaye zibhekisa kwizenzo ezenziwa ngabantu, iinkampani noorhulumente ukwanelisa iimfuno nokujongana nokunqongophala kwempahla (microeconomics), okanye isifundo senkqubo yesizwe kunye nezenzo zorhwebo, imikhwa kunye nedatha yehlabathi iseti iphela (ye-macroeconomics).
  • Ithiyori kunye noqoqosho olunamandla. Elinye iqela elikhulu lelo libandakanya uqoqosho lweemodeli ezinengqiqo (ithiyori) kwaye leyo isekwe "kwinyani" kwaye iyaziphikisa iingcamango zangaphambili (ezomeleleyo).
  • Ngokuqhelekileyo kwaye kulungile. Lo mahluko usekwe ngaphezulu kwako konke kubukho bezoqoqosho. Ngelixa eyokuqala ngokungqongqo ilandela imigaqo ebonakalisa uqoqosho, okwesibini into eyenzayo kukusebenzisa umbono otshintshayo njengoko uluntu nabantu beguquka.
  • I-Orthodox kunye ne-heterodox. Kukho umahluko kwinqanaba lezemfundo. Eyokuqala ibhekisa kubudlelwane phakathi kobungqiqo, umntu, kunye nokulingana okukhoyo phakathi kwaba babini; Ngelixa owesibini esixelela ngemisinga eseka isifundo sabo kumaziko, ezembali nakwimeko yentlalo evelayo eluntwini.
  • Imveli, indawo enye, imakethi okanye uqoqosho oluxubekileyo. Kwabaninzi, olu lolona luhlu luhle kakhulu kuqoqosho, kwaye lusekwe kwiindidi ezine ezahlukeneyo, ezi:
    • Esiqhelekileyo: sesona sisisiseko, kwaye sifundisisa ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu kunye neempahla kunye neenkonzo.
    • Embindini: ubizwa njalo kuba amandla aphethwe ngumntu (Urhulumente) kwaye nguye olawula zonke iintshukumo zoqoqosho ezenziwayo.
    • Intengiso: ayilawulwa nguRhulumente kodwa ilawulwa ngokusekwe kunikezelo nakwimfuno yeempahla kunye neenkonzo.
    • Umxube: Yindibaniselwano ezimbini kwezi zingasentla, okucwangcisiweyo (okanye okuphakathi) kunye nemarike. Kule meko, yinxalenye yolawulo lukarhulumente kunye nommiselo.

Ngaba icacile kuwe ukuba yintoni uqoqosho?


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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