Ko Warren Buffet anoisa mari yake kupi?

Warren Buffett anogara ari mumwe wevanhu vakapfuma kwazvo pasirese, aine mambure akakosha emadhora zviuru makumi masere nezviuru zvisere kubva muna Gumiguru 80,8. Izvi zvinomuita munhu wechitatu akapfuma kwazvo pasirese. Buffett anobata mambure ake anokosha zvikuru mumatanda muBerkshire Hathaway neBerkshire Hathaway, kambani yekudyara yaakavamba. Berkshire Hathaway inoshanda semotokari yako yekudyara, kuisa mari muzvinhu zvakaita semasheya, zvivakwa uye simba rinowedzerwazve.

Nekudaro, Buffett aive nemavambo ane mwero, ayo akaumba maitiro aanoona manejimendi. Akaberekerwa muOmaha, Nebraska, muna 1930, uye guta rave riri imba yake kubvira ipapo.

Kushanda semutengesi wekudyara, aive nehunyanzvi hwekudyara uye akazogadzira Berkshire Hathaway mukambani iri nhasi. Achiri kugara mumba maakatenga muna 1958 ne $ 31.500.

Berkshire Hathaway

Mazhinji ehupfumi hwaWarren Buffett akasungirirwa kune Berkshire Hathaway's portfolio yekudyara. Mishumo kubva muna 2004 kusvika 2019 inoratidza kuti danda raBuffett muzvikamu zveBerkshire Hathaway zvikamu mazana matatu mazana matatu ezviuru zveA Kirasi A uye zvikamu mazana maviri nemakumi matanhatu nemazana mana zveMakirasi B. Mumakore achangopfuura Buffett akapa huwandu hwakawanda hwezvikamu zvake kumubatsiro. Zvinyorwa zvaro zvichangoburwa zve350.000-D zvinoratidza kubata kwayo mukirasi A masheya pazvikamu 2.050.640 uye chikamu chayo chekirasi B ku13. Kubva munaKurume 259.394, 65.129, BRK.A yaive ichitengesa pamadhora 13 uye BRK.B iri $ 2020.

Mutengo waBuffett waingova $ 1 miriyoni paakanga aine makore makumi matatu, yaive yakawanda yeBerkshire Hathaway stock. Kuburikidza nehungwaru hwekudyara kwemasangano, akasimudza stock yekambani kubva pamadhora 30 muma7,60 kusvika padanho ranhasi. Uku kuwedzera kwekuwedzera mumutengo wemugove ndiye mutyairi mukuru wekukwira kwaBuffett mumatare akakosha mumakumi emakore apfuura.

Warren Buffett akatenga masheya ake ekutanga pazera remakore gumi nerimwe, zvikamu zvitanhatu pamadhora makumi matatu nemasere mukambani inonzi Cities Service Preferred, iyo yaakatengesa makore mashoma gare gare ne $ 11 mugove.

Stock portfolio

Kunze kwekushanda sachigaro weBerkshire Hathaway uye mukuru wevakuru (CEO) uye ari mumwe wevashandi vake vakakurisa, Buffett anoshandisa kambani iyi semotokari yake yekutanga yekudyara, achiitisa yakawanda yekutengesa kwake nekutenga masheya sekushambadzira kwebhizinesi. Iyi portfolio inoita iyo yakawanda yeako equity investments.

Mutyairi anozivikanwa nemubhadharo wake uye nzira yekukoshesa kudyara mari, uye hofisi yake inoratidza mafungiro ake. Kubva muna Zvita 31, 2019, Portfolio yeBerkshire Hathaway yaive yakakosha madhora anosvika mabhiriyoni 194.910. Iwo makuru eportfolio zviremera aive muApple (AAPL), Bank of America Corp (BAC), uye Coca-Cola Kambani (KO). Yakasanganiswa, makambani matatu aya akaita 56% yemateki.

Sezvo chikamu chemari yekudyara, Berkshire Hathaway ndiye muzvinabhizimusi mukurusa mune zvemari pa38%, ichiteverwa ne26% muhunyanzvi uye 15% mukutsigira kwevatengi. Mamwe matunhu ari muchikwereti anosanganisira maindasitiri, ma cyclicals evatengi, hutano, simba, kutaurirana masevhisi, zvinhu zvekutanga uye zvivakwa.

Makambani anobatsira

Mukuwedzera kumatanda, Berkshire Hathaway inozivikanwawo sekambani inobata. Iyo kambani ine 65 subsidiaries ine tarisiro pane inishuwarenzi uye zvivakwa. Mamwe emabhizimusi ayo anosanganisira GEICO Auto Inishuwarenzi, Clayton Homes, uye See's Candies.

Kwikwidza isina njodzi ne $ 100.000 mumari chaiyo. Ipa hunyanzvi munzvimbo chaiyo usati watanga kuisa panjodzi yako wega. Dzidzira nzira dzekutengesa kuitira kuti kana iwe wagadzirira kupinda mumusika chaiwo, wave uine tsika yaunoda. Edza yedu stock simulator nhasi.

Zano raWarren Buffett rekudyara harina nguva Ndarasikirwa kuverenga huwandu hwekukanganisa kwekudyara kwandakaita pamusoro pemakore, asi angangoita ese anowira mune rimwe remakumi gumi emabhaketi ezano rekudyara Warren Buffett anopa pazasi.

Nekuchengeta zano raBuffett rekudyara mupfungwa, varimi vanogona kudzivirira dzimwe dzenjodzi dzinokanganisa kudzoka uye nekukanganisa zvinangwa zvemari.

Mazano ekudyara mari kubva kuna W. Buffett

Mushure mekufungisisa kwakawanda, ndakagara pane angu gumi anodikanwa eWarren Buffett matipi ekudyara kubva pane iri pazasi. Yese nugget yehungwaru inotsigirwa neinenge imwe yemashoko akataurwa naWarren Buffett uye inobatsira kune varimi vanotarisa kuti vawane masheya akachengeteka. Ngatinyurirei mukati.

1. Chengetedza izvo zvaunoziva… uye hapana chimwe chinhu.

Imwe yedzakareruka nzira dzekuita mhosho inodzivirirwa ndeyekutora chikamu mune zvakawandisa mari.

Vazhinji vedu vakapedza basa redu rese vachishanda kwete zvinopfuura mashoma maindasitiri akasiyana.

Isu tinogona kunge tine nzwisiso yakasimba zvine musoro yekuti mashambadziro aya anoshanda sei uye ndiani makambani akanakisa ari munzvimbo.

Nekudaro, ruzhinji rwemakambani anotengeswa pachena anobatanidzwa mumaindasitiri uko isu tine zvishoma kana tisina ruzivo rwakananga.

"Usamboisa mari mubhizimusi rausinganzwisise." - Warren Buffett

Izvi hazvireve kuti hatigone kuisa mari munzvimbo idzi dzemusika, asi isu tinofanirwa kusvika nekuchenjerera.

Mune maonero angu, ruzhinji rwemakambani anoshandisa mabhizinesi akanyanya kundinetsa kuti ndinzwisise. Ini ndichave wekutanga kukuudza kuti handigone kufanotaura kubudirira kwekambani yezvigadzirwa zvemagetsi zvebhaotech, kufanotaura inotevera inotevera fashoni muhembe dzevechidiki, kana kuona inotevera tekinoroji kumberi iyo inokonzeresa kukura kwe semiconductor machipisi.

Idzi mhando dzenyaya dzakaomarara dzinokanganisa purofiti inogadzirwa nemakambani mazhinji mumusika, asi zvine nharo isingatarisirwe.

Pandinoona bhizinesi rakadai, mhinduro yangu iri nyore:

Kune hove dzakawandisa mugungwa kuti vafungidzire pamusoro pekufunda kambani kana indasitiri iyo yakaoma kunzwisisa. Ichi ndicho chikonzero Warren Buffett akambo dzivirira kudyara mari mune yehunyanzvi chikamu.

Kana ndikatadza kuwana nzwisiso inonzwisisika yekuti kambani inogadzira mari sei uye madhiraivha makuru anokanganisa indasitiri yavo mumaminetsi gumi, ini ndinoenderera kune inotevera zano.

Pakati pezviuru gumi nemazana makambani akatengeswa neruzhinji pachena kunze uko, ndinofungidzira kuti hapana anopfuura mazana mashoma emakambani anosangana nemitemo yangu ye bhizinesi kureruka.

Peter Lynch akamboti, "Usambofa wakaisa mari mune imwe pfungwa yausingakwanise kufananidza nepenzura."

Mhosho zhinji dzinogona kudzivirirwa kana tikaramba tiri mudenderedzwa reunyanzvi uye tikauya nezano rekuzviita.

2. Usambofa wakakanganisa kunaka kwebhizinesi

Ipo ichiti "kwete" kumabhizinesi akaomesesa nemaindasitiri zviri nyore, kuzivisa mabhizimusi emhando yepamusoro kwakanyanya kuoma.

Uchenjeri hwekudyara kwaWarren Buffett hwashanduka mukati memakore makumi mashanu apfuura kuti vatarise zvakanyanya pakutenga makambani emhando yepamusoro nemikana inovimbisa yenguva refu yekuenderera mberi kukura.

Vamwe vatengesi vanogona kushamisika kuziva kuti zita reBerkshire Hathaway rinobva kune imwe yemari dzakaipisisa dzaBuffett.

Berkshire yaive muindasitiri yemachira, uye Buffett akaedzwa kutenga bhizinesi nekuti mutengo waiita kunge wakachipa.

Iye akatenda kuti kana iwe ukatenga stock pamutengo wakaderera zvakakwana, panowanzove nenyaya dzakanaka dzisingatarisirwi dzinogona kukupa iwe mukana wekuburitsa chinzvimbo pane purofiti yakanaka - kunyangwe kana kuita kwenguva refu kwebhizinesi kuchiri kutyisa .

Nemamwe makore eruzivo pazasi pebhandi rake, Warren Buffett akachinja chinzvimbo chake pakuisa mari mu "buti yefodya." Akataura kuti kunze kwekunge iwe uri mutengesi, iyo nzira yekutenga bhizinesi mbeveve.

Iyo yekutanga "yekutengeserana" mutengo pamwe haizoshanduke kuve kuba mushure mezvose. Mune bhizinesi rakaoma, panongogadziriswa rimwe dambudziko, rimwe rinowonekera. Aya marudzi emakambani zvakare anofarira kuwana kudzikira kwakaderera, achiwedzera kukanganisa kukosha kwemari yekutanga.

Aya maonero akatungamira Buffett kuti atore mazwi anotevera anozivikanwa anotevera:

"Zvirinani kutenga kambani yakanaka nemutengo wakaringana pane yakanaka kambani nemutengo unoshamisa." - Warren Buffett

Imwe yezvakakosha zvemari zviyero zvandinoshandisa kuyera bhizinesi mhando ndeye kudzoka kune yakadyarwa capital.

Makambani anowana mibairo mizhinji pamari yakasimwa mumabhizinesi avo ane mukana wekuwedzera purofiti nekukurumidza kupfuura makambani ari kuita zvakaderera. Nekuda kweizvozvo, kukosha kwemukati memakambani aya kunowedzera nekufamba kwenguva.

"Nguva ishamwari yebhizimusi rinoshamisa, muvengi wepakati." - Warren Buffett

Kudzoka kwakakwirira paiyo equity kunogadzira kukosha uye kazhinji kunoratidza kwehupfumi hwehupfumi. Ini ndinoda kuisa mari mumakambani anogadzira yakakwira (10% -20% +) uye kudzoka kwakadzikama pamari yakadyarwa.

Panzvimbo pekupa muyedzo wekutenga chikamu chemadividhi ne10% goho kana kutenga masheya mukambani inotengesa "chete" kasere mari yainowana, ita shuwa kuti zvese zvaitwa nenzira kwayo.

Kune rimwe divi reratidziro, vamwe varimi vanopfuura-kusiyanisa mapotifoliyo avo nekutya uye / kana kusaziva. Kuva nemasheya zana kunoita kuti zvisakwanisike kuti muzvinashawo arambe achiziva zviitiko zvazvinoitika zvine chekuita nemakambani avo.

Kuwedzeredza kusiyanisa kunorevawo kuti portfolio inogona kuiswa mune akati wandei madhiri, kusanganisa kukanganisa kweayo emhando yepamusoro ekuibata.

Kuparadzanisa kudzivirirwa pakusaziva. "Zvinonzwisisika kune avo vanoziva zvavari kuita." - Warren Buffett

Diversification

Zvichida Charlie Munger akapfupikisa zviri nani:

"Pfungwa yekuwedzeredza kusiana ndeyekupenga." - Charlie Munger

Iwe une zvikamu zvingani? Kana mhinduro yacho ichidarika makumi matanhatu, iwe unogona kufunga zvakanyanya kupaza yako portfolio kuti utarise pane ako epamusoro maitiro ekubata.

5. Nhau zhinji ruzha, kwete nhau

Hapana kushomeka kwenhau dzemari dzinosvika kuinbox mazuva ese. Kunyangwe ini ndiri muverengi ane mukurumbira wemusoro, ndinobvisa runenge ruzivo rwese rwandakapihwa.

Mutemo we80-20 unoti kwakatenderedza 80% yemhedzisiro inogona kunzi inosvika makumi maviri muzana yezvikonzero zvechiitiko.

Kana zvasvika kune nhau dzemari, ndingati zvakada kufanana neiyo 99-1 mutemo - 99% yemasheya ekudyara atinotora anofanirwa kuverengerwa ku1% chete enhau dzemari dzatinodya.

Mazhinji emisoro yenhau uye hurukuro paterevhizheni zviripo kuburitsa buzz uye kumutsa manzwiro edu kuita chimwe chinhu - chero chinhu!

“Vanogovana mari, zvisinei, kazhinji vanorega hunhu husina musoro uye kazhinji husina musoro hwevamwe varidzi vawo zvichivaita kuti vaitewo zvisina mwero. Nekuti pane kutaura kwakawanda pamusoro pemisika, hupfumi, chimbadzo, maitiro emitengo yemasheya, nezvimwe, vamwe vatengesi vanotenda kuti zvakakosha kuteerera kune nyanzvi - uye, zvakatoipisisa, zvakakosha kufunga nezvekuita. zvinoenderana nekutaura kwako. " - Warren Buffett

Iwo makambani andino tarisira kuisa mari kusvika parizvino akamira nemuedzo wenguva. Vazhinji vanga vari mubhizinesi kweanopfuura makore zana uye vakasangana nezvinenge zvese dambudziko risingatarisirike zvingafungidzirwa.

Fungidzira kuti ingani "nhau" dzakaipa dzakaburitswa muhupenyu hwavo hwese. Zvisinei, ivo vachiri vakamira.

Izvo zvine basa here kana Coca-Cola akarasikirwa makota ekuwana mibairo ne4%?

Ndinofanira kutengesa chinzvimbo changu muJohnson & Johnson nekuti stock iri pasi 10% kubva pandakatanga kutenga?

Nemitengo yemafuta inodonha ichityaira purofiti yaEexx Mobil pasi, ndinofanira kutengesa zvikamu zvangu here?

Mhinduro kumibvunzo iyi ingangove inonzwika "kwete," asi mitengo yemasheya inogona kufamba zvakanyanya sezvo nyaya idzi dzichimuka. Vezvenhau vezvemari vanofanirwawo kuputira misoro iyi kuti varambe vari mubhizinesi.

"Rangarira kuti musika wemasheya unoodza mwoyo manic." - Warren Buffett

Sevashambadziri, isu tinofanirwa kuzvibvunza kana chinhu chenhau chinokanganisa simba-refu rekuwana kambani yedu.

Kana mhinduro iri kwete, isu tinogona kunge tichiita zvinopesana nezvinoitwa nemusika (semuenzaniso, Coca-Cola inowira 4% pamushumo unogumbura wekuwana unokonzerwa nezvinhu zvenguva pfupi - funga kutenga stock).

Iko musika wekutengesa isimba rine simba uye risingafungidzike. Tinofanirwa kuve vanosarudzika pamusoro penyaya dzatinosarudza kunzwa, ndoda kuita. Mune mawonero angu, iyi ndeimwe yemazano akakosha ekudyara.

Kuisa mari haisi rocket sainzi, asi hapana "bhatani riri nyore"

Zvichida imwe yemafungiro makuru asiri iwo pamusoro pekudyara mari ndeyekuti vanhu chete vane hunyanzvi ndivo vanogona kubudirira kusarudza masheya.

Nekudaro, zvinogona kutaurwa kuti huchenjeri hwakasvibirira ndechimwe chezvinhu zvidiki zvekufungidzira zvekubudirira kwekudyara.

Haufanire kunge uri musayendisiti wedombo. Kuisa mari hausi mutambo apo mukomana ane IQ ye160 anorova mukomana ane IQ yemakumi matatu. " - Warren Buffett

Hazvitore musayendisiti wedombo kutevera huchenjeri hwekudyara kwaWarren Buffett, asi zvinonetsa zvinoshamisa kuti chero munhu arambe achirova musika uye kudzivirira hunhu.

Zvakakosha zvakaenzana, vatengesi vanofanirwa kuziva kuti hapana mashiripiti mutemo wakatemwa, fomula, kana "bhatani riri nyore" iro rinogona kuendesa mhedzisiro inokunda musika Izvo hazvipo uye hazvizombovapo.

Vemari vanofanirwa kusahadzika mamodheru zvichibva munhoroondo. Inovakwa neupristi hunonzwika neruzha… aya mamodheru anowanzoita seanonakidza. Asi zvakare kazhinji, varimi vanokanganwa kuongorora fungidziro dziri kumashure kwemamodeli. Ngwarira ma nerds anopfeka mafomula. - Warren Buffett

Chero ani anoti ane sisitimu yakadaro nekuda kwekuwedzera bhizinesi anogona kunge asina hunyanzvi kana asiri nani pane mutengesi wemafuta enyoka mubhuku rangu. Ngwarira kune vanozviti "gurus" vanokutengesera maoko-akasununguka, ane mitemo-based investment system. Kana sisitimu yakadaro yaivapo zvechokwadi, muridzi aisazofanira kutengesa mabhuku kana kunyorera.

"Zviri nyore kupusa vanhu pane kuvaratidza kuti vanyengedzwa." - Maka Twain

Kunamatira kune yakasarudzika seti yemitemo yekudyara kwakanaka, asi kudyara mari kuchiri hunyanzvi hwakaoma hunoda kufunga uye haufanire kunzwa nyore.

8. Mafambiro akanakisa anowanzo kufinha.

Kuisa mari mumusika wekutengesa haisi nzira yekufuma nekukurumidza.

Kana paine chero chinhu, ndinofunga kuti musika wemasheya uri nani mukukura zvine mwero mari yedu iripo kwenguva refu.

Kuisa mari hazvirevi kuti kuve kunonakidza, uye kukura zvikamu kubva pakuisa mari kunyanya inzira yekuchengetedza.

Panzvimbo pekuyedza kutsvaga anotevera muhwina muindasitiri iri kubuda, kazhinji zviri nani kuisa mari mumakambani akatoratidza kukosha kwawo. Kuva nemasheya zana kunoita kuti zvisakwanisike kune investor kuti afambirane nezviitiko zvazvino.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
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