IPC: ndi chiyani ndipo zimakhudza bwanji ndalama?

ipc

Limodzi mwamagwiritsidwe azachuma omwe akugwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pano ndi IPC. Koma kodi tikudziwadi tanthauzo lake lenileni? Izi zikugwirizana ndi mawu achidule amitengo ya ogula, ndipo ndi manambala omwe akuwonetsa kusiyanasiyana kwamitengo munthawi yapadera. Ndi chisonkhezero china pamisika yachuma komanso pakusintha kwamitengo. Kuchokera pazochitikazi, itha kukhala gawo lodalirika kwambiri lolowera kapena kutuluka m'misika yazachuma ndi chitsimikizo chodzachita bwino.

CPI ndichinthu chofunikira kwambiri pakuwunika za malipiro ndi penshoni mdziko lathu. Kukhala wofunikira pakukula kwake, makamaka ngati kuchuluka kwa mitengo ya ogula ndikokwera kwambiri. Ngakhale kudziwa ndondomeko ya ndalama a dziko kapena malo, ndipo munjira imeneyi chitsanzo chabwino ndi gawo lomwe European Central Bank (ECB) yakhala ikukulitsa kulimbikitsa kukula m'dera la yuro. Ndipo m'mbuyomu kutuluka pamavuto azachuma omwe adachitika pakati pa 2007 ndi 2008.

Kumbali inayi, cholozera cha mitengo ya ogula chikuwonekeranso kuti ikhale ngati gwero lofotokozera zomwe zimadziwika kuti "basket yotsatsa". Chifukwa chakuti, kudzera mu CPI tikudziwa momwe kusinthaku gawo lofunika kwambiri lachuma chomwe chimatchedwa chuma chakunyumba. Mulimonsemo, izi zidzakhudza kukonzekera banja kapena bajeti yaumwini, monga ogwiritsa ntchito onse amadziwa. Chifukwa chake, index yamitengo ya ogula ili ndi tanthauzo lina kuposa momwe mungaganizire kuyambira koyambirira.

Kusintha kwamitengo ya ogula

ndalama

Mtengo wapachaka wa Consumer Price Index (CPI) wapakati pa Januware ndi 1,0%, magawo awiri mwa magawo khumi kutsika kuposa omwe adalembetsa mwezi watha, malinga ndi zomwe zaperekedwa ndi National Institute of Statistics (INE) ndi chisonkhezero choipa zomwe zikuwonekera pakuchepa kwa ndalama zapachaka ndi izi:

Zakudya ndi zakumwa zosamwa mowa. mitengo ya nyemba ndi ndiwo zamasamba, yomwe idatsika chaka chatha, malinga ndi lipoti ili.

Maulendo, ndi mulingo wa -0,2%, magawo anayi mwa magawo khumi a mwezi wapitawo, chifukwa mitengo yamafuta ndi zotsekemera zidakwera mwezi uno kuposa Januware 2018.

Zosangalatsa ndi chikhalidwe, amene kusiyana kwake pachaka kunachepa pa magawo khumi ndi atatu, kufika pa -0,9%, chifukwa chakuchepa kwamitengo yama phukusi oyendera alendo, yomwe ndi yayikulu mwezi uno kuposa Januware wa chaka chathachi.

Zotsatira zoyipa pa index

Mwanjira imeneyi, pali magawo ena omwe apanga zambiri zosakhutiritsa munthawi ino zomwe zakhudza mtengo wamoyo womwe wakula. Mwachitsanzo, ndiye kuti tivumbulutsa pansipa:

Zovala ndi nsapato, ndi mlingo wa -15,4%, zomwe zikuwonetsa zotsatira za kugulitsa kwachisanu. Zotsatira zake pa CPI wamba ndi -1,037.

Zosangalatsa ndi chikhalidwe, omwe kusiyana kwake kwa -2,3% kumakhala ndi zotsatira za -0,190, ndipo kumalimbikitsidwa, kwakukulukulu, ndi kutsika kwamitengo yama phukusi okopa alendo.

malo okhala, yomwe idapereka chiwongola dzanja cha -0,6% ndi zotsatira za -0,076, chifukwa chakutsika kwamitengo yamafuta ndipo, pang'ono, dizilo yotenthetsera ndi magetsi.

Banja,, zomwe zimayika kusiyanasiyana kwake -0,5%. Kutsika kwa mitengo yazovala zapanyumba kukuwonekera pakusintha uku. Zotsatira za gululi pa index yonse ndi -0,028.

Hotelo, malo omwera ndi malo odyera, omwe mulingo wake wa -0,2%, womwe umakhala ndi zotsatira za -0,022, umayambitsidwa chifukwa chotsika kwamitengo yantchito zogona. Tiyeneranso kukumbukira, ngakhale mbali ina, kukwera mitengo kwa odyera.

Mitengo yamagawo odziyimira pawokha

cesta

Chimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kwambiri kuziganizira mu index ya mtengo wa ogula ndikuti siyunifolomu. Ngati sichoncho, m'malo mwake, zimasiyanasiyana kuchokera kudera lodziyimira pawokha kupita kwina ndipo nthawi zina ndimphamvu zomwe zimakopa chidwi kwambiri, kwa azachuma komanso kwa ogwiritsa ntchito omwe. Mwanjira imeneyi, komanso malinga ndi zomwe zaposachedwa ndi National Institute of Statistics (INE), zikuwonetsedwa kuti kuchuluka kwa CPI pachaka kumachepa m'magulu odziyimira pawokha mu Januware poyerekeza ndi Disembala ndipo amasungidwa m'matatu otsalawo.

Kutsika kwakukulu kumachitika ku Castilla-La Mancha, ndi dontho la magawo khumi mwa magawo khumi. Kwa iwo, madera omwe amasunga ndalama zawo pachaka ndi Illes Balears, Comunidad Foral de Navarra ndi País Vasco. Monga chizindikiro chosinthasintha pachuma komanso kuti CPI yonse imakhazikitsa gawo limodzi lofunikira kwambiri pazaumoyo wachuma. Mwachitsanzo, pankhani iyi waku Spain. Kupitilira pazinthu zina zamatekinoloje zomwe ziyenera kuwunikiridwa munkhani ina pamndandanda wamtengo wogula.

Index Yogwirizana (HICP)

Ndi mtundu wina wamagulu amitengo ya ogula ndipo limatanthawuza chisonyezo chazofunikira mwapadera ndipo cholinga chake ndikupereka kufufuma komwe kumalola kufananiza kwapadziko lonse lapansi. Kotero kuti mwanjira imeneyi ndizotheka kuwunika kutsata pankhaniyi yomwe a Pangano la Maastricht kulowa mu Monetary Union. Kuchokera pano, itha kukhala gawo lazachuma lomwe lingakhudze kwambiri mtengo wakukhala mdziko.

Kumbali inayi, ziyenera kudziwika kuti Januware watha kuchuluka kwakusintha kwa HICP kudakhala pa 1,0%, magawo awiri mwa magawo khumi pansipa omwe adalembetsa mwezi watha. Chifukwa chake, kusiyanasiyana kwa HICP mwezi uliwonse munthawi yowunikirayi ndi -1,7%. Mosiyana ndi izi, m'mwezi wa Januware kuchuluka kwakusintha kwa CPI pachaka ku Misonkho Yokhazikika (CPI-IC) idayima pa 0,9%, gawo limodzi mwa magawo khumi poyerekeza ndi CPI wamba. Kusiyanasiyana kwamwezi pamwezi kwa CPI-IC kwakhala -1,4% munthawi yowunikirayi. Kumbali yake, HICP ku Constant taxes (HICP-IC) imapereka chiwongola dzanja cha 1,0% pachaka, chofanana ndi cha HICP.

Mitengo yosiyanasiyana yamitengo

dinero

Monga mukuwonera m'nkhaniyi, chimodzi mwazikhalidwe za CPI ndikuti imaperekedwa pamitundu yosiyanasiyana, monga ma tax tax (IPCA-IC). Ndipo izi zithandizira kukhala ndi masomphenya enieni okhudza chuma cha mabanja. Ndizosadabwitsa kuti ndi okhawo onjezani kugula, koma mkhalidwe weniweni wa ngongole zanyumba kapena ndalama zomwe zimachitika popanga mankhwala. Ndipo atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kuti maboma achitepo kanthu pazachuma kapena ngakhale ntchito kapena thandizo pamagawo omwe asowa kwambiri.

Chifukwa chake, index ya mtengo wa ogula ndiyofunikira kwambiri kuposa momwe ogwiritsa ntchito ambiri amakhulupirira poyamba. Mosiyana ndi yanu zimakhudza ndalama zopezeka m'misika yamalonda. Pomwe zochitika zake zikuchepa pazifukwa zosiyanasiyana zomwe zikhale mutu wankhani zina. Mulimonsemo, sizithandiza kwambiri kuti mitengo yama stock ikwere kapena kutsika kutengera magawo azachuma awa. Monga tawonera m'magulu akuluakulu amisika yachuma.

Zotsatira zamabizinesi pamsika wamsika

Zotsatira zamabizinesi zomwe zidalembedwa pamisika yama equity zimakhudza kwambiri msika wamsika. Mwanjira imeneyi, chidziwitso chofunikira kwambiri ndikuti makampani omwe amapanga Ibex 35 adatseka chaka chatha ndi kuwonjezera phindu. Izi zimaphatikizaponso zotsatira zamakampani 35 omwe amapanga. Makampani omwe atchulidwa adakwanitsa kuthana ndi nyumba zovuta komanso zovuta zachuma zomwe akukumana nazo. Koma kukula kwa phindu lake kwachepa poyerekeza ndi miyezi khumi ndi iwiri ya 2017.

Makampani omwe ali mgawo lamagetsi adayambitsanso phindu, ndikuwonjezeka kwa pafupifupi 5%, ndikukula kwachuma kwa 9%, poyerekeza ndi 4% pamtengo. Izi ndizidziwitso zomwe zimatsatiridwa kwambiri ndi omwe amagulitsa ndalama zazing'ono komanso zapakatikati zomwe zimakhudza kwambiri chuma cha makampani omwewo kuposa kukwera mtengo kwa moyo. Ndipo izi zitha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito m'misika ina yamayiko akunja, monga zasonyezedwera zaka zaposachedwa. Ndipo izi zimatsimikizira kuti kwakanthawi pali kugula kapena kugulitsa.

Makampani omwe atchulidwa adakwanitsa kuthana ndi nyumba zovuta komanso zovuta zachuma zomwe akukumana nazo. Koma kukula kwa phindu lake kwachepa poyerekeza ndi miyezi khumi ndi iwiri ya 2017.


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