Dokar Okun

bin doka

Shin kun taɓa jin labarin Dokar Okun? Idan ba ku sani ba, wannan ya samo asali ne daga 1982 kuma maginin wannan shine Arthur Okun, masanin tattalin arziƙin Amurka wanda ya nuna daidaituwa tsakanin haɓaka tattalin arziƙin tattalin arziƙin da rashin aikin yi.

Amma akwai ƙarin sani game da wannan dokar? Gaskiyar ita ce, don haka muna ƙarfafa ku da ku ci gaba da karantawa da gano dokar da ke bayyana abubuwa da yawa da suka shafi tattalin arziki da rashin aikin yi ko samar da ayyukan yi.

Menene Dokar Okun

Menene Dokar Okun

Dokar Okun wani ra'ayi ne wanda masanin tattalin arziƙin Amurka Arthur Okun ya bayyana a shekarun 60. Wannan ya sami alaƙa tsakanin ƙimar rashin aikin yi da samar da ƙasa. Wannan ya fito da aka buga a cikin wata kasida, "GNP mai yuwuwa: Aunawarsa da Muhimmancinsa."

A ciki, Okun ya bayyana cewa, idan za a kula da matakan aiki, tattalin arzikin ya haɓaka tsakanin 2,6 zuwa 3% kowace shekara. Idan ba a cimma hakan ba, hakan zai kara yawan rashin aikin yi. Bugu da kari, ta tabbatar da cewa, idan wata kasa ta sami nasarar kula da cewa kashi 3% na ci gaban tattalin arziki, rashin aikin yi zai ci gaba da tsayawa, amma don rage shi, ya zama dole a sami maki biyu ga kowane rashin aikin yi da ake son ragewa.

Abin da wataƙila ba ku sani ba shi ne wannan “doka” ba ta yiwuwa a tabbatar. Masanin tattalin arziƙin ya yi amfani da bayanan daga 1950 kuma a cikin Amurka kawai, kuma ya tsara wannan ka'idar tana amfani da ita kawai ga rashin aikin yi tsakanin 3 zuwa 7,5%. Duk da wannan, gaskiyar ita ce dokokin da Arthur Okun ya bayar sun yi daidai, don haka ne har yanzu ake amfani da shi a ƙasashe da yawa.

A takaice dai, dokar Okun tana gaya mana cewa idan tattalin arzikin ƙasa ya bunƙasa hakan na nufin dole ne a ɗauki ƙarin ma'aikata tun da za a buƙaci ƙarin ma'aikata. Wannan zai shafi rashin aikin yi, rage shi. Kuma akasin haka; idan aka samu matsala a tattalin arzikin kasa, to za a bukaci karancin ma’aikata, wanda zai kara rashin aikin yi.

Menene dabarar dokar Okun

La Tsarin dokar Okun wannan ne:

? Y / Y = k - c? U

Wannan ba shi yiwuwa a fahimta, amma idan muka gaya muku abin da kowace ƙima take nufi, za mu sami:

  • Y: shine bambancin samarwa a cikin tattalin arziki. A takaice dai, bambanci tsakanin GDP na zahiri da ainihin GDP.
  • Y: shine ainihin GDP.
  • k: shi ne kashi -ɗari na yawan ci gaban samarwa.
  • c: abin da ke da alaƙa da canjin rashin aikin yi tare da bambancin samarwa.
  • u: canji a cikin yawan rashin aikin yi. Wato, bambanci tsakanin ainihin rashin aikin yi da ƙimar yanayi.

Menene dokar Okun?

Menene dokar Okun?

Duk da abin da muka tattauna a baya, gaskiyar ita ce dokar Okun kayan aiki ne mai ƙima. Kuma shi ne cewa yana ba da damar hasashen yanayin tsakanin GDP na ainihi da rashin aikin yi. Menene ƙari, ana amfani da shi don tantance abin da farashin rashin aikin yi zai kasance.

Yanzu, kodayake muna cewa yana da ƙima sosai, gaskiyar ita ce bayanan da aka samu, idan aka kwatanta da lambobi a cikin ainihin duniya, ba daidai ba ne. Me ya sa? Masana sun danganta hakan da abin da ake kira "Okun coefficient."

Problemsaya daga cikin matsalolin wannan doka ita ce lokacin da ƙimar ta kasance na dogon lokaci, sakamakon yana gurbata kuma yana da kuskure (wannan shine dalilin da ya sa ɗan gajeren lokaci na iya samun madaidaicin madaidaici).

To yana da kyau ko mara kyau? Shin da gaske yana cika manufarsa? Gaskiyar ita ce eh, amma tare da nuances. Kawai lokacin neman bincika abubuwan da ke faruwa na ɗan gajeren lokaci tsakanin GDP na ainihi da rashin aikin yi sune bayanan da aka yarda da su kuma masu amfani ke amfani da su. Koyaya, idan yana da dogon lokaci, abubuwa suna canzawa.

Dalilin da ya sa yake nuna bambanci tsakanin ƙasashe

Dalilin da ya sa yake nuna bambanci tsakanin ƙasashe

Ka yi tunanin ƙasashe biyu masu bayanai iri ɗaya. Al'ada ne a yi tunanin cewa, idan kuka yi amfani da tsarin dokar Okun, sakamakon zai zama iri ɗaya. Amma idan muka ce kada ku yi fa?

da Kasashe, duk da samun bayanai iri ɗaya da tsarin hukumomi, suna da bambance -bambance. Kuma wannan shi ne saboda wadannan:

Amfanin rashin aikin yi

Ka yi tunanin cewa lokacin da kake neman aiki, ana ba ku fa'idodin rashin aikin yi. Wannan kuɗin na iya zama ƙarami, amma kuma yana iya zama babba, yana sa mutane su “saba da” karɓar kuɗi don yin komai kuma a ƙarshe za su nemi ƙarancin aiki.

Yanayin lokaci

Wannan ba yana nufin kansa a kan lokaci ba, amma ga yanayin kwangilolin. Lokacin da aka yi kwangiloli na wucin gadi da yawa, farawa da ƙarewa, abin da kawai ke haifar shine akwai lambobi masu ban mamaki lokacin da aka zo lalata da ƙirƙirar.

Kuma zai shafi tsarin, musamman a cikin GDP da ƙimar rashin aikin yi.

Dokokin kwadago

Babu shakka cewa dokoki takobi ne mai kaifi biyu. A gefe guda, suna taimakawa kare ma'aikata. Amma kuma suna haifar da adadin rashin aikin yi ya shiga tsarin tattalin arziki. Wannan farashin harbe -harben, idan sun yi ƙasa, yana sa kamfanoni su ɗauki ƙarin mutane ba tare da izini ba, don takamaiman ayyuka.

Bukatar waje

A cewar dokar Okun, Lokacin da tattalin arziƙin ƙasa ya dogara da ɓangaren waje, yana fuskantar ƙarancin matsaloli fiye da rashin aikin yi raguwa.

Matsaloli a yawan aiki da rarrabuwa

Ka yi tunanin cewa ƙoƙarin yana fuskantar aiki ɗaya. Yanzu, maimakon ɗaya, kuna da 10. A wane yanayi ne za ku fi jin daɗin fa'ida? Abu mafi mahimmanci shine cewa idan kun sadaukar da kanku ga abu ɗaya, kun ƙware a ciki. Amma idan akwai ƙari, abubuwa suna canzawa.

A sarari yake cewa Dokar Okun kyakkyawar kayan aiki ce ga tattalin arziƙi da tattalin arziƙi. Amma dole ne a ɗauke shi da ɗan gishiri tunda sakamakon ba koyaushe yake zama na ainihi ba, na ɗan gajeren lokaci da na dogon lokaci. Don haka dole ne a yi la’akari da sauran nau'ikan abubuwan da za su iya yin tasiri. Shin kun san wannan dokar a da? Shin akwai wani shakku da bai bayyana muku ba?


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  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
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