Ayini ama-stock indices

Ayini ama-stock indices

Ngokuqinisekile ujwayelene ne-Ibex, i-Nasdaq ... Ongase ukwazi ukuthi le migomo ibhekisela kukho. Nokho, lezi yizinkomba zesitoko, uyazi ukuthi ziyini?

Okulandelayo sizoya cacisa ukuthi yiziphi izinkomba zesitoko, ukuthi zinamiphi imisebenzi, kanye nezinhlobo ezikhona namuhla. Uma unesithakazelo esihlokweni, ungangabazi ukuqhubeka usifunde.

Ayini ama-stock indices

indices zamasheya

Izinkomba zesitoko, eyaziwa nangokuthi inkomba yesitoko, Ingabe empeleni izinkomba ezisiza ukwazi ukuthi bekuyini ukuhluka kwentengo yezimpahla ezisohlwini, inqobo nje uma behlangabezana nochungechunge lwezimpawu.

Ngamanye amazwi, sikhuluma ngenani lereferensi elikunikeza isethi yamanani acashunwe emakethe yamasheya kuleyo nto ethile, ngendlela yokuthi ungabona ukuthi ishintshe kanjani ngentengo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngokubuka okukodwa. .

Leli nani lezinombolo lisetshenziswa ngaphezu kwakho konke ukuze umuntu akwazi ukuthola umbono wesimo senkampani ayihlaziyayo, ngendlela yokuthi abone ukuthi kuyisikhathi esihle yini, noma ngokuphambene nalokho, uma kungcono ungafaki imali kuyo .

Phakathi kwama-stock indices amaningi akhona namuhla, endala i-Dow Jones Transportation Average, inkomba eyadalwa ngoJulayi 3, 1884 nguCharles Dow (yingakho igama lakhe), intatheli futhi ungumsunguli weWall Street Journal. Njengamanje, yakhiwe izinkampani zokuthutha ezingu-11 kanti eziyisi-9 kuzo zingojantshi.

Imisebenzi ye-stock indices

Imisebenzi ye-stock indices

Manje njengoba usuwazi ukuthi yiziphi izinkomba zesitoko, kungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi unombono wokuthi ziyini izinjongo. Kodwa ukuze kucace kakhudlwana, le misebenzi ihlukaniswe yaba okulandelayo:

  • Basiza ukukala ukusebenza. Okusho ukuthi, ngokukwazi ukubona ukuhluka kwentengo inkampani enakho, ungazi ukuthi kuyindlela enhle yokusebenza nayo noma cha. Lokhu kuvumela abaphathi ukuthi benze umsebenzi ongcono.
  • Ivumela ukwazi ukuthi ikhona yini inzuzo noma ingozi emakethe. Ngakho-ke, ngokubona izinguquko zamanani ahlukene ungakwazi ukwazi ukuthi kuyisikhathi esihle sokusebenzisana nayo noma cha.
  • Kwezinye izimo, ama-stock indices ziba yisisekelo semikhiqizo yokutshala izimali.
  • Ivumela ukukala impahla yezezimali. Ngokusobala akuyona inkomba ethembekile engu-100%, cishe ayikho, kodwa ungenza i-beta (okungukuthi, ukuhlola) ukuthola lawo manani aguquguqukayo ukuze wenze izinqumo ezifanele kakhulu.

Izinhlobo zezinkomba zesitoko

Uma ukhumbula ekuqaleni, uzokwazi lokho Ayikho inkomba yesitoko eyodwa kuphela, kodwa ezimbalwa zazo. Ochwepheshe bangazikala ngezindlela eziningi ezahlukene, nakuba ezivame kakhulu ngokuvamile zingu-3. Lezi yizi:

Ngokwemvelaphi yayo

Ikakhulukazi, zisekelwe lapho lezi zinkomba zivela khona noma lapho zisebenza khona. Ikuphi ukuhlukaniswa okutholakalayo?

  • Abezizwe. Lapho izimpahla abasebenza nazo zingezezwe elilodwa kuphela.
  • Amazwe ngamazwe. Lapho izimpahla zisemazweni amaningana angaphandle. Akukhathalekile ukuthi yinye kuphela kanti abanye basezweni elilodwa, kulelo zwe ngabe vele ingeyamazwe ngamazwe.
  • Global. Lokhu kwehluka kwedlule ngoba impahla ayigxili emazweni ambalwa angaphandle kodwa igcwele umhlaba wonke.

Ngokusho kwenkampani

Isigaba sesibili esisetshenziswa kakhulu uhlobo lwenkampani okuyilo. Kulokhu, sikhuluma ngalokhu:

  • Izinkomba zomkhakha. Lapho izinkampani ezakha izimpahla zigxile emkhakheni othile.
  • I-Intersectoral. Ngokungafani nezinye, lapha ubungeke ube nomkhakha owodwa kodwa bekuyoba eziningana zazo.

Ngokohlobo lwempahla

Okokugcina, okokugcina kwezigaba ezivame kakhulu kuhlobene nezimpahla esisebenza ngazo, sihlukanisa izinkomba ngalezi:

  • Imali engenayo eguquguqukayo. Lapho izimpahla ziyizitoko ngokuyinhloko.
  • Ukuqasha okulungisiwe. Lapho izibopho nezibopho zingena khona. Kulesi simo sesibili bazoba yinoma yiluphi uhlobo.
  • Ama-Raw material. Ngokuqondile, sikhuluma ngesiliva, uwoyela, igolide ...

Imaphi ama-stock indices akhona emhlabeni

Imaphi ama-stock indices akhona emhlabeni

Ukukhuluma ngazo zonke izinkomba zesitoko kungaba yinto eyisicefe futhi eyisicefe. Nokho, kuyiqiniso ukuthi kukhona ezinye zazo ezisetshenziswa kakhulu (noma ezaziwa kangcono).

Sibhekisela ku Dow Jones (e-United States); I-Nasdaq (futhi ese-US); I-Eurostoxx50 (eYurophu); U-Nikkei (eJapane); noma Ibex35 (e-Spain, futhi eyinhloko ehlanganisa izinkampani ezingu-35 ezinemali ephezulu kanye ne-liquidity).

Manje, lezi esesibalulile akuzona zodwa ezikhona. Eqinisweni, kuye ngezwe (noma izwekazi) singathola abameleli abangaphezu koyedwa. Ngokwesibonelo:

Endabeni United StatesNgaphandle kwe-Dow Jones ne-Nasdaq, enye eyaziwa kakhulu futhi esetshenziswa kakhulu i-S&P 500, okuthi, njengoba isibalo sibonisa, yakhiwe izinkampani ezingama-500 ku-New York Stock Exchange kanye ne-Nasdaq, phakathi kwezinkulu kunazo zonke ezweni.

Uma siya ku- EuropaKunezinkomba ezintathu zesitoko okufanele zicatshangelwe. Ingabe:

  • I-Dax 30, yomdabu waseJalimane futhi ehlanganisa izinkampani ezingu-30, ezibaluleke kakhulu ze-Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
  • I-FTSE 100, edabuka eLondon, kanye nezinkampani ezibaluleke kakhulu eziyi-100. NjengoDow Jones, le nkomba yesitoko yadalwa iphephandaba, iphephandaba le-Financial Times.
  • I-CAC 40, futhi enezinkampani ezingama-40, ezivela kuphela emakethe yamasheya yaseFrance.

Ukubuyela emuva engxenyeni ye Melika, Kodwa kuleli cala eningizimu, izinkomba eziyinhloko zemakethe yamasheya, ngokuvamile ezinganakwa (okungenani eSpain), ziyi:

  • I-Bovespa, yomdabu waseBrazil futhi yakhiwe izinkampani ezingu-50 eSao Paulo Stock Exchange.
  • IPC, Mexican, futhi ilawulwa uCarlos Slim.
  • I-IBC Caracas, okuyinkomba eyinhloko eVenezuela futhi yakhiwe izinkampani eziyi-16.
  • I-IGBVL, evela ePeru.
  • Merval, wase-Argentina lapho uthola khona izinkampani ezibaluleke kakhulu eBuenos Aires Stock Exchange.
  • IPSA, evela eChile.
  • I-MSCI Latin America. Ingenye yezinkomba zemakethe yamasheya yamazwe ngamazwe njengoba inezinkampani ezivela eBrazil, Peru, Mexico, Chile naseColombia

Ezingeni lase-AsiaNgaphezu kukaNikkei, okuphawulekayo yi-SSE Composite Index, ebaluleke kakhulu eChina; I-KOSPI, evela ohlangothini lwaseNingizimu Korea; BSE Sensex, evela eNdiya; o I-Hang Seng Index, evela eHong Kong.

Ingabe manje usucace kakhudlwana mayelana nokuthi ziyini izinkomba zesitoko?


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

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