Yini indawo yokwamukela izivakashi?

Indawo yokwamukela izivakashi

Ngaphakathi kwezomnotho kunemigomo eminingi labo abangathintani njalo nalolu hlobo lwendawo abangayazi, kodwa-ke kunemigomo ethile okufanele sonke siyazi ukuze siqonde kangcono ukuthi uhlelo olukhona manje lusebenza kanjani. Elinye lala magama lithi Lobby, igama elingasikhumbuza ngolimi lwesiNgisi, kodwa-ke, kuyigama elibaluleke impela emkhakheni wezomnotho nezepolitiki, ake sibone ukuthi lokhu kusho ukuthini.

Cishe, lapho ulalela i- Igama lokucela Ake sicabange ngalokho okwaziwa ngeSpanishi njengegumbi lokulinda noma igumbi lokulinda. Kodwa-ke, ngencazelo ejulile, indawo yokwamukela izivakashi yaziwa njengeqembu lokunxenxa noma iqembu lokucindezela; lokhu kusho ukuthi a I-Lobby iyiqembu labantu ezihlangana ukuze zikwazi ukufaka ingcindezi ethile enenhloso yokuqondisa izinqumo zesikhungo sezepolitiki noma sezezimali, ngendlela yokuthi izinqumo zithi zilungele iqembu labantu elihlangene.

Futhi-ke leli gama nalo mkhuba akuyona into evele eminyakeni yamuva, ake sibone ukuthi zavela nini futhi ngani.

Umsuka wamaLobbies

Ngokuvumelana ne Amarekhodi omlando esingafinyelela kulo namuhla, leli gama laqala ukusetshenziswa eminyakeni yokugcina yekhulu le-100, okusho ukuthi, eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-XNUMX, leli gama libe yingxenye yamagama ethu, futhi lithinte izinqumo eziningi ezithathwe ohulumeni asebekhona.

Indawo yokwamukela izivakashi

Ukuze sikwazi ukuhlangana ukugcwala kwendaba kwalesi sikhathi kubalulekile ukuthi sisho ukuthi ngonyaka we-1830 igama elithi Lobby selivele labe selikhethe indawo ehambisana nemigwaqo Indlu Yeminyango; uthe igumbi yindawo ebekelwe ukuthi bakwazi ukuxoxa ngezinto ezihambisana nephalamende. Okunye okuphikisanayo kwamakhampasi ukuthi uGeneral Grant, waseMelika, wazinza endaweni yokwamukela izivakashi engezansi kwehhotela, lokhu ngenxa yomlilo owathinta i-White House. Futhi lapho esefakiwe kuleyondawo indawo yokwamukela izivakashi yagcwala ngalokho manje esikwaziyo njengama-lobby.

Umgomo wama-lobbies

Ngenxa yalokhu esikufundile mayelana nezindawo zokucela umphakathi kungenzeka ukuthi sikholelwa ukuthi iqembu elihlangana ukuze likwazi ukufaka ingcindezi ngaphambi kwesinqumo sezepolitiki noma sezomnotho, singacabanga ukuthi ngumcimbi ongekho emthethweni, kodwa-ke, uphikisana nalokho ngoba Njengoba lo msebenzi uvame ukwenziwa, isinqumo sesithathiwe sokulawula ama-lobbies. Futhi kubhekwa njengalokho inhloso yokwamukela izivakashi ngukuthi wonke amaqembu anentshisekelo athola umphumela othile ngenxa yesinqumo sezikhulu zomphakathi angaveza imibono yawo, izidingo noma ukungavumelani okuhlobene nesinqumo esishiwoyo.

Futhi yize lo mthetho ususebenze iminyaka eminingi, eminyakeni edlule kube nenqubekela phambili maqondana noku ukulawulwa kwama-lobbies, ukwenza izinto obala kanye nokubeka ezingeni elithile lokhu kwenziwe ngendlela ephumelela kakhulu nangendlela yokuthi wonke amaqembu anentshisekelo angakwazi ukwanelisa izidingo kanye nokukhathazeka kwawo ngale nqubo.

Ngoba iMelika ingenye yezindawo zokuqala lapho lokhu kuqala ukulawulwa ngumthetho, singathola izinkomba eziningi zomlando ngalezi zehlakalo kulelo zwe; Isibonelo, sinombhalo kaJohn F. Kennedy, lapho umongameli waseMelika akhombisa khona ukuthi inzuzo yama-lobbies ukuthi labo abayingxenye yabo bangamchazela inkinga ngemizuzu eyi-10, kuthi abeluleki bakhe bathathe izinsuku ezintathu.

Ngakho-ke kanye lapho ohulumeni bakuqonda ukubaluleka kwala ma-lobbies, lapho kwenziwa isinqumo sokubalawula, ngoba ukuze kusetshenziswe inqubomgomo ngendlela ephumelela kakhulu, kuyadingeka ukulalela labo abanentshisekelo yalokhu noma leso sinqumo esizothathwa, ngaphezu kwalokho lokhu kuvumela ukuqondiswa yabantu abathintekayo ukuhlala bathinteka okuhle, ngoba lokho ukuphela kwepolitiki.

Lapha e-European Union kunefayela le- ukulawulwa kwama-lobbies, umthethonqubo okhonjiswa kwirejista yomphakathi, eyavulwa ngo-2008, ngenyanga kaJuni. Futhi isizathu esiyinhloko sesinqumo sokwenza lo mcimbi senziwa ukuthi bafuna ukwandisa ukubonakala kokusebenza kwama-lobbies emazweni abathintekayo. Futhi manje njengoba sesazi ukuthi zaba khona kanjani nokuthi zilawulwa njengamanje, ake sibheke ukuthi la ma-lobbies ahlukaniswa kanjani, ukuze siqhubeke nokuqonda iqhaza lawo ekwakhiweni komthetho wamanje.

Ukwahlukaniswa kweLobby

Indawo yokwamukela izivakashi

Abaqashi

Okokuqala esizokhuluma ngakho yilawa izicelo zabaqashi, futhi ukuthi indima yalo ekuthuthukiseni umphakathi wanamuhla ibonakala ngokusobala. Kule minyaka okwenziwe ngayo lo mkhuba, izinyunyana zabaqashi zingenye yamaqembu anesisindo esikhulu ezinqumweni ezizothathwa ukuchaza inkambo yemithetho yezabasebenzi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi bayithinte kakhulu indlela okushaywa umthetho ngayo. Okukodwa kwe izindawo zokucela abantu ezaziwa kakhulu eYurophu yi-ERT, eyaziwa ngokuthi itafula eliyindilinga laseYurophu losomabhizinisi.

Yize kuncike ezweni esibhekise kulo, iqiniso ukuthi ohulumeni babanikeze iqhaza elibaluleke kakhulu kwezepolitiki, futhi isizathu salokhu ukuthi ubukhulu becala yilawo maqhinga okulawula abasebenzi, ngakho-ke yibo abazi kakhulu umkhakha futhi futhi yibo abanengxenye ebalulekile yomnotho.

Futhi kufanele kukhulunywe ukuthi ezikhathini eziningi amalungelo akhethekile anikezwa labo abayingxenye yalaba bameleli, uma kuqhathaniswa nokunye amabhizinisi azimele, okwenza ukuba ngaphakathi kwalezi zinhlangano kube yisifiso esilindelwe isikhathi eside sezinkampani eziningi ezikhathini eziningi.

Inyunyana

Amanye amaqembu engcindezi anethonya elikhulu ekuthuthukisweni kwezombusazwe kwezinkampani yi Izinyunyana. Lawa maqembu abenethonya elikhulu hhayi eminyakeni yamuva nje, kepha kusukela ngekhulu le-XNUMX, ubukhona bawo bekucaca lapho kungenelela izinqumo zombuso.

Esinye sezihloko ezisemqoka okuxoxwa ngaso ngumbuso wezenhlalakahle noma wezenhlalakahle, lapho kukhulunywa khona ngezinqubomgomo zombuso okufanele zifune inzuzo enkulu yabantu. Iqiniso lokuthi lawa malobbi angenelela kulezi zinhlobo zezinkinga zezepolitiki kube yinto ebalulekile emazweni amaningi ukuthi asungule imithethonqubo yezomthetho ukuze izingqinamba zokuqinisekisa njengezinkokhelo eziphansi, isikhathi seholide, phakathi kwabanye abaningi.

Njengamanje kukhona ngaphakathi kwalesi sigaba, abaningi izinyunyana emhlabeni wonke, engamela iqembu elithile labasebenzi, ngokwesibonelo singabala izinyunyana zezemfundo, noma nezimayini, uwoyela, izinyunyana zezolimo, phakathi kwabanye abaningi.

Futhi yize kuliqiniso ukuthi awusoze wayifuna i- amalungelo abasebenzi, kunamanye amazwe lapho ithonya lezinyunyana lincipha, singabala iFrance, i-Italy neGreat Britain njengezinye zezindawo lapho izinyunyana zingabalulekile kangako; Lokhu kudalwa, ngokusho kochwepheshe, ukuthi njengamanje kunomncintiswano omkhulu phakathi kwezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene, okusho ukuthi abasebenzi abahlakazekile hhayi ezindaweni zabo zokusebenza kuphela, kepha abakwazi ngisho nokuvumelana ngakho.izidingo zabo ngokuqinisekisa ukuthi ngayinye inhlalakahle yabo.

Izazi zemvelo

Akumangazi ukuthi eminyakeni yamuva nje singene esikhathini lapho kunokukhonjiswa ngokweqile ngokunakekela imvelo. Ngenxa yokuthandwa kwalesi sihloko, izinhlangano eziningi emhlabeni wonke zenziwe ngenhloso yokukwazi ukuqinisekisa ukuthi inhlalakahle yemvelo yeplanethi.

Izidingo eziyinhloko zalokhu uhlobo lwama-lobbies Kufanele banakekele ukuxhashazwa kwemithombo yemvelo ekhona emhlabeni, banakekele ukuthi ukukhishwa okwenziwe kungalimazi imvelo, kanye nokunakekela ukungcola okwenzeka emhlabeni nasemanzini.

Amandla nethonya yalezi zinhlangano kuyabonakala lapho sisho umthetho wokukhishwa kwekhabhoni, kanye nesidingo sezinhlelo zemvelo okufanele zisetshenziswe ezinkampanini ezikhiqizayo, kuye kwenziwa ne-standard standard ye-ISO egxile ekunakekelweni kwemvelo, nasezindabeni akukhulunywa ngezintshisekelo zomphakathi kuphela, kepha nezombusazwe kanye nezomnotho.

Akungabazeki ukuthi zonke lezi zinhlangano zibambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekuthuthukisweni komlando wesintu, futhi ngaphandle kokungabaza izoqhubeka ibe khona inqobo nje uma kunezintshisekelo ezifanayo.

 

 


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.