Yisiphi isikhwama sokutshala imali okufanele ngisikhethe?

Izimali zokutshala imali zingenye yemikhiqizo ekhethwe ngabasebenzisi ukuhambisa imali yabo ngendlela ephumelelayo. Njengokuthatha indawo yamadiphozithi esikhathi esinqunyiwe abone inzuzo yawo yehla yaze yafika ezingeni lokuthi unganikeli ngaphezu kuka-0,5% ezinyangeni ezisanda kwedlula. Yebo, ngalo mqondo, izimali zikwazile ukukholisa abatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi ukuba bazame ukwenza imali etholakalayo ibe nenzuzo. Ngaphezulu kolunye uchungechunge lwemikhiqizo yezezimali eyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe ekwakhiweni kwayo nakuma-mechanics. Kufike ezingeni lokuthwebula ukonga kwengxenye enhle yalaba bantu.

Ngaphansi kwale ndlela ejwayelekile, enye yezinkinga ezihambisana nezimali zokutshala izimali ukuthi zinikeza amamodeli anhlobonhlobo. Hhayi kuphela ukuthi zivela kuphela ezimakethe zezimali, kepha futhi zivela kokuhleliwe noma okulinganayo kusuka kwezinye izakhiwo noma ezezimali. Ukuze kuzo zombili lezi zimo, izikhundla ezimakethe zezimali zingathuthukiswa kusukela manje kuqhubeke. Kusukela kulezi zinhlobo zamafomethi, sizonikeza abafundi amasu amahle kakhulu wokukhetha izimali ezinhle kakhulu zokutshala imali.

Noma kunjalo, lesi yisinqumo esizoncika yephrofayili eyethulwe ngabatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi. Lokho wukuthi, uma benolaka, belinganisela noma bengaphakathi ukuze bakwazi ukuzivumelanisa nezidingo zangempela abanazo ngesikhathi sokuthola lo mkhiqizo wezezimali. Njengemali abazoyabela lesi sigaba sokusebenza ngokususelwa kuzici zabo ekuguqukeni kwabo njengabasebenzisi. Ngenhloso yokwenza ngcono inzuzo manje enikezwa yile mikhiqizo yokutshala imali. Futhi uma kungenzeka ukusondela ekubuyisweni okunikezwa ngalesi sikhathi ngokuthenga nokuthengisa amasheya emakethe yamasheya.

Ukukhetha izimali: uhlobo lwezimakethe

Isici sokuqala okufanele abasebenzisi basibheke yimakethe abafuna ukuyikhomba kusuka manje. Lokho wukuthi, uma kungokazwelonke noma labo abavela ngaphandle kwemingcele yethu nokuthi kunoma yiliphi icala bazonquma i- inzuzo yangempela wezimali ezikhethiwe zokutshala imali. Ngenkathi ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuyinto efiselekayo ukuthi ubheke ukuvela kwezimakethe zezimali ozibeke ku-radar. Ngalo mqondo, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi uhlobo lwezimakethe lukhethwe ngokuya ngomkhuba olukhombisa ngaso sonke isikhathi nangendlela elingana nenzuzo yalo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, izimali zikazwelonke kufanele zihlale zikhona kuphothifoliyo yezimali zokutshala imali. Hhayi nje ngoba yizimpahla zezimali ezaziwa kakhulu, kepha futhi ngoba yizo ezinamakhomishini ancintisana kakhulu kunabo bonke. Lapho ungakhona yonga kufika ku-30% engxenyeni enhle yeziphakamiso izinkampani zabaphathi ebezikhula. Futhi, ngeke ukhohlwe ukuthi ingxenye encane kakhulu yokonga kwakho ingaya ezimakethe ezisafufusa. Kulokhu, ngoba yibo abangakhiqiza inzuzo ephezulu uma bekhombisa ukuthambekela okubheke phezulu okuyisisekelo.

Kuya ngemali

Izimali zesikhwama sokubambisana zibaluleke kakhulu ngoba zingaba yingxenye ekuthuthukiseni izinga lenzalo elinikezwa yilolu hlobo lomkhiqizo wezezimali. Ngokuyisisekelo ihlukanisiwe ngoba kuyadingeka ukuthi ube nolwazi oluncane ngemisebenzi eyenziwayo etholakala ekutshalweni kwemali enkombeni yemakethe abukho ubungozi bemali, okusho ukuthi, imali yakhona eyi-euro, njenge-Eurostoxx - 50, futhi futhi ngoba ziyizinkampani eziqiniswe kakhulu endaweni yebhizinisi yezwekazi elidala.

Ukutshalwa kwezimali okuncane ukufaka lezi zimali kuncike kuzici zalowo nalowo wabo, kepha njengamanje kunemikhiqizo engabhaliswa kusuka kuma-euro angama-100 kuphela, noma ngabe ukuze utshalomali lukhiqize imiphumela efiselekayo ngokwenzuzo ebonakalayo kudingekile faka cishe ama-euro angama-3.000 okungenani. Izimali eziseduze kakhulu yizo ezithatha kakhulu lo mkhuba. Ngenzuzo yokuthi ngeke sizibeke engcupheni engadingekile engasisinda ekusebenzeni ngesikhathi esithile lapho uqasha. Njengezimali zokutshala imali ezibhaliswe ngamadola, amaSwitzerland francs noma imiqhele yaseNorway, ukubala ezinye zezimali ezifanele kakhulu futhi ezaziwayo.

Inzuzo eqongelelwe

Lokhu kufanele kube ngenye yemingcele okufanele siyibheke lapho sikhetha le modeli yokutshala imali. Kepha nokwazi ukuthi inzuzo eyedlule akudingeki ukuthi igcwaliswe ezinyangeni ezizayo. Uma kungenjalo, ngokuphambene nalokho, kufanele kube njengokujwayela ukukhombisa isimo sangempela sokutshalwa kwemali. Eqinisweni kuvame ukuba baningi ukushintshashintsha unyaka nonyaka, njengoba kungabonakala ochungechungeni lwezomlando. Kunoma ikuphi, ngaso sonke isikhathi kuhle kakhulu ukubheka le datha ngaphambi kokwenza ngokusemthethweni isikhwama sokutshala imali ukwazi ukuthi ukusebenza kwaso kungaba yini ngemuva kokwenziwa kwaso ngokusemthethweni.

Ngenkathi ngakolunye uhlangothi, kunezinto eziningi lapho inzuzo yalo mkhiqizo wezezimali ekugcineni izoncika khona. Njengesibonelo, umzuzu wokuhlangana womnotho wamazwe omhlaba, izehlakalo ezikhula phakathi nonyaka noma ukuvela kwezimakethe zokulingana emhlabeni jikelele. Kunoma ikuphi, lokhu kuyisiqephu solwazi okumele kubhungwe ngalo ezincwajaneni zesikhwama futhi ezitholakala kubo bonke abasebenzisi. Kokubili maqondana nemikhiqizo yezwe nalabo abavela ngaphandle kwemingcele yethu futhi okungaletha umehluko ophawulekayo esikhwameni esisodwa noma kwesinye sesigaba esifanayo.

Khetha izimpahla ezinhle kakhulu

Kuyacaca ukuthi enye idatha ezosethwa kusukela manje yileyo ephathelene nomkhuba wezimali zokutshala izimali ngokwazo. Futhi ngaphakathi kwayo, ngokubhaliselwe kwalabo abethula i- isimo sangempela esihle kakhulu ngalezo zikhathi. Kwezinye izimo kungahle kube yimali yaseMelika kanti kwezinye, ngokwesibonelo, izinto zokusetshenziswa. Isimo ngasinye sidinga ukwelashwa okwehlukile okwenzeka kuphothifoliyo yezimali okungahluka kakhulu, ngokuya ngephrofayili enikezwe abasindisi abancane nabaphakathi. Ngoba ekugcineni kosuku kumayelana nokwenza inzuzo nokwenza ngcono imali etholakalayo yokutshala imali.

Kodwa-ke, kuyiqiniso ukuthi kukhona ezinye izinhlobo ezibhekiswe esikhathini esimaphakathi nesikhulukazi esilawulwa ezinye izingqinamba zezezimali hhayi kuphela umzuzu lapho impahla yabo yezezimali idlula khona. Lesi ngesinye sezici okufanele zilindelwe ngaphambi kokubhalisa kwakho ukugwema izimo ezingafuneki kulolu hlobo lwendlela. Akumangalisi ukuthi enye yezinto okufanele uzigweme ngazo zonke izindlela ukubhalisela izimali zokutshala imali ngaphandle kwemininingwane yangaphambilini futhi okungaholela ekutheni ube nezinye izimanga ezingezinhle ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezizayo, njengoba zenzeka nje. osindisa abancane nabaphakathi.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuyasiza kakhulu ukuthi waziswe yilabo ababhekele ukutshalwa kwezimali ebhizinisini lapho uzokwenza khona ngokusemthethweni lo mkhiqizo wezezimali. Yisevisi yamahhala futhi engakulethela inzuzo engaphezu kweyodwa ukuthuthukisa inzuzo yakho. Futhi ungenzi isinqumo esingalungile ongazisola ngaso kamuva futhi lokho ngomunye wemisebenzi abanayo abatshalizimali. Noma iliphi iphutha ekubalweni lingabiza ama-euro amaningi kubhalansi yokusebenza.

Ukuzuza esikhwameni ngasinye

Izimali zezimali zamazwe omhlaba zikhombisa ukukhula ngenyanga ka-3,1% ngokwemigomo yamaphesenti, futhi ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-1.140 ngemigomo ephelele, ngokusho kwedatha yakamuva enikezwe yi-Association of Collective Investment Institutions and Pension Funds (Inverco). Lapho kucaca khona ukuthi maqondana nemali enqwabelene yanyakenye, izimali zamazwe ngamazwe zithola ukukhula okuphezulu kakhulu kwazo zonke izigaba ngamaphesenti (cishe ukwanda okungu-29%), ezimele ama-euro ayizigidi ezingama-8.540 ngaphezulu ngokuphelele. Izimali ezihlanganisiwe zemali engenayo engaguquki zibhalise ukungena okuhle kakhulu, okuthi kanye nokubuyekezwa kwemakethe kuvumele lesi sigaba ukuthi sandise inani laso lezimpahla ngo-1,4% uma kuqhathaniswa nenyanga eyedlule (izigidi ezingama-570 ngaphezulu kukaNovemba).

Ngale ndlela, izimali ezihlanganisiwe zemali engenayo ezingaguquki zithole izimpahla ezilahlekile engxenyeni yokuqala yonyaka odlule, ngokunyuka okungaba ngu-2%. Ngokunjalo, izimali ezihlanganisiwe zamanani, okusho ukuthi, ngokuchayeka kwamasheya kwiphothifoliyo yazo phakathi kuka-30% no-75% wengqikithi, kukhombisa ukukhula okuphezulu enyangeni, futhi kusele kuphela izimali zokulingana. unyaka (21,3% ngaphezu kukaDisemba 2019), kungabalwa imali engenayo engaguquki, okukhuphuka kwayo kubangelwe ingxenye yokwahlukaniswa okusha kwezinye izimali zemali njengemali engenayo yesikhashana.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   Abakwa-Edelys kusho

    I-athikili enhle kakhulu, ngiyabonga ngokuzinikela kwakho nesikhathi. Halala