Kwakuyini ukuhweba okungunxantathu

unxantathu ukuhweba incazelo

Isimo somlando esibanzi, umzila wezohwebo osungulwe e-Atlantic Ocean, osebenza kusukela ngekhulu le-XNUMX kuya kwele-XNUMX, lokhu nokuningi kwakungukuhweba okungunxantathu.

Kulesi sihloko sizonikeza umbono wesikhathi esedlule ongaqhathaniswa nesikhathi samanje, okusivumela ukuthi sihlaziye umcimbi omkhulu ngokubaluleka komhlaba osathinta nanamuhla.

Lo mcimbi uthatha igama lawo ngenxa yesimo sikanxantathu asidwebe ebalazweni ukuma kwawo, umzila nobukhulu bawo; okubandakanya amazwekazi amathathu.

Ngabe lolu hlobo lwesimo nokuhlelwa kwemizila yaso olwandle olwandle kungawuthonya ngokuqinile umnotho wezwe wamanje?

Namuhla singasho ukuthi umnotho womhlaba wanamuhla empeleni uwumphumela wezinga elikhulu lohambo lwaseYurophu lokutholwa olwenziwe ngekhulu le-XNUMX nele-XNUMX.

Ukubaluleka kokushintshana kwezentengiselwano phakathi kwamazwe kwaba okufanele ngisho nangaphambi kokuba kuqale ukuhweba okungunxantathu, okwakukhona ngaleso sikhathi kumazwekazi ahlukene.

Uma sibheka emuva emlandweni

ukuhweba okungunxantathu kuyini

Kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo, cishe kudala, ubugqila bebukhona ngezinhlobo nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene, ngandlela thile belilokhu likhona kumandla empilo yohlanga lwesintu, linqoba futhi licindezela.

AmaRoma, amaGrikhi, abaseBabiloni noma abaseGibhithe, ababesetshenziswa njengezigqila zabantu abaningi emadolobheni anqotshiwe; ezikhathini eziningi abantu ababengazikhokhi izikweletu zabo noma ngenxa nje yokuthi babeklanywe esigabeni sabantu abangamakholwa; kubhekwe njengokuphansi futhi okufanelwe yizenzo ezinjalo kubo ngokwefilosofi yokuphila nokuhlaziywa kwezigidi zabantu.

ENkathini Ephakathi kwavela amanethiwekhi wamathrekhi ama-Arabhu ayehloselwe ukudluliselwa kwezigqila ezisuka enkabeni ye-Afrika, inethiwekhi yeNayile, leyo yamachibi amakhulu nezinye izifunda.

Lapho iMelika itholwa ngabaseNtshonalanga, ukuhweba kwamaNdiya kusungulwa ngezinga elikhulu. AmaPutukezi neSpanish asevele ngo-1493 ahlukanisa iZwe Elisha, futhi aqala indlela engalingani ukuze kusizakale lezi zifunda.

Eziningi zalezi zindawo, ikakhulukazi e-Antilles, abantu bancipha ngenxa yezimpi ezijwayelekile zale micimbi, izifo ezazingeniswe zisuka eYurophu futhi, ngokujwayelekile, ngenxa yokuhlukunyezwa nokuphathwa kabi bavezwa.ngendlela enesihluku.

Abasebenzi ababenamandla, benala futhi beshibhile babedingeka ngokushesha, ngenxa yesidingo sokuxhaphaza amazwe aseMelika, izimayini zawo zesiliva nezegolide, kanye nazo zonke izimo ezithembisayo ezingabonakala ezicini ezehlukene zomnotho.

Kwakukhona vele izincomo zokuthengwa kwezigqila zase-Afrika, amandla azo ayaziwa kahle, futhi kuzonikeza iziqinisekiso zokuphendula abasebenzi abaphoqelelwe nabaqisayo okwakuhlelwe nokwamukelwa okufanele kwenziwe.

Phakathi nekhulu leminyaka elilandelayo, amaNgisi nawo aqala ukugijima, ekhomba amakoloni aseMelika, alandelwa yizizwe ezithile zaseYurophu ezinjengeDenmark, iFrance neNetherlands. Ngo-1685, uColbert wenza ubugqila obujwayelekile futhi kwamenyezelwa i-Black Code yokuqala, okwenza ubugqila busemthethweni ngale ndlela.

Kwakungenzeka-ke ukuthi isimo sobugqila, esasinomthelela omkhulu kulo mongo saba nomthelela emphakathini waseNdiya kuqala futhi kamuva e-Afrika, sasiguqula isimo saso.

Ngokuthuthuka okubheke phezulu, "ukuhweba okungunxantathu", ukuhweba ngezigqila, kuyathuthuka.

Ababanjiwe nabathengiswayo ngabesifazane, abesilisa nezingane. Isibalo esibalulekile nesifanele sabantu abayizigidi ezingama-25-30 yinombolo ephethwe yabantu abasuswa ngenkani ezindaweni zabo, ngaphandle kokungena kulesi sibalo ukufa kwabantu okungenakubalwa emikhunjini nasekubhekaneni nezinqubo zokubamba kanye nezimpi ezihlobene, abangazengeza amanani amakhulu abantu abathintekile.

Ukuhweba okungunxantathu: Uhambo lwezindlela ezintathu

Ukuhweba okungunxantathu kwaqala ikakhulukazi eNtshonalanga Yurophu, emazweni afana neFrance, iHolland, iNgilandi nePortugal, ngezimpahla ezahlukahlukene futhi ezakhiwayo, ukufinyelela ogwini olusentshonalanga ye-Afrika phakathi kwemifula iSenegal neCongo, lapho ngaleso sikhathi kwasetshenziswa imikhiqizo efana nezibuko, izindwangu ezishibhile, izinsimbi njll. Lapho zifika lapho, izigqila ezimnyama zazilayishwa, zinikezwa abathengisi bendawo nabantu abaphezulu.

ukuhweba komhlaba okungunxantathu

Ngokuma eduze kweziqhingi zase-Antilles noma ogwini lwaseMelika, Izigqila zaseYurophu nokuthengiswa kwathengiswa, kulayishwa imikhumbi ebuyela eYurophu ngemikhiqizo efana nezinsimbi eziyigugu, ukhokho, ugwayi noshukela.

Le ndlela yokuhweba ngaphesheya kwe-Atlantic, eyayidlangile ngemuva nje kokutholakala, futhi yaqhubeka kwaze kwagqashuka iMpi Yombango yaseMelika, ibibandakanyeka ngendlela efingqiwe lezi zici ezilandelayo.

  • Thuthukisa ukuthunyelwa ngaphandle kwezigqila ezivela ezwenikazi lase-Afrika ziye eNew World. Kakade emhlabathini waseMelika, amaqembu agqilaziwe aphoqeleka ukuthi asebenze emikhakheni ekhiqiza ukotini, ushukela nezinye izinhlobo zemikhiqizo eyisisekelo.
  • Thekelisa eYurophu ngemikhiqizo eyisisekelo ekhiqizwayo kanye nezinto zokusetshenziswa. Izimpahla eziningi zathengiswa ngaphansi kwamamodeli wezentengiselwano ahlukahlukene futhi zabamba iqhaza ezinhlelweni zokukhiqiza.
  • Ingxenye yokukhiqizwa kwemikhiqizo ekhiqizwayo evela kumandla afakiwe, yathunyelwa e-Afrika, lapho babethengiswa ngazo futhi kwenziwa ukukhokhelwa kwezigqila.

Lo mzila wawunezinzuzo zobuchwepheshe nokusebenza kwemikhumbi yasolwandle, ngenxa yokusakazwa kwamaselula omoya namaza olwandle akhona eduze kwe-Azores anticyclone.

Lawa makhono asebenzayo wokuzula akwazi ukwenziwa futhi axhashazwe, ngemuva kokutholakala emkhakheni weJografi okwenzeka ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-XNUMX.

Kulolu hlobo lwezohwebo bekukhona ukusesha okuqhubekayo kokusebenza kahle kanye nokusebenza okuphelele kwenqubo, ukuthambekela okwamanje okugcinwe ekuhwebeni ezingeni lomhlaba wonke nakulabo abanqumayo nabakuthuthukisayo.

Umkhumbi owodwa wawukwazi ukuqedela sonke isifunda usuka eLiverpool uthwele imimoya, izikhali nezindwangu; ulibangise emaphuzwini abalulekile ogwini lwaseNtshonalanga Afrika, lokhu kuyisitobhu esiyinhloko. Isigaba sesibili salo mzila sabe sesiqala, okwenza ukunqamula oLwandle i-Atlantic kulayishwe izigqila ezibheke e-Antillean Islands noma ogwini lwaseMelika.

Uma sezikule ndawo, izigqila zathengiswa futhi imikhumbi yalayishwa kabusha ngogwayi, ukotini, ushukela, njll, ibuyela echwebeni lokuqala.

Yize lokhu empeleni kwakuyifilosofi yokuhweba okungunxantathu, ukukhetha ubungcweti kwaba umkhuba lapho kwenziwa uhambo lokuqala. Kwakungukuhweba kwevolumu nenani elikhulu kangangokuthi kwakunengqondo ngokuphelele ukwakha imikhumbi eyayizomboza umlenze ngamunye wohambo ngendlela ekhethekile.

Kunoma ikuphi, igama elithi "ukuhweba okungunxantathu" laliyinto enhle ukumela ukushintshaniswa kukathathu okwatholakala ngezigqila, okwenziwa kanye nezinto zokusetshenziswa; ngaphandle kokubheka ngqo uhlobo lwezokuthutha kanye nezici zalo ezithile.

Ubudlelwano bezohwebo baleli zinga nohlobo baba nomthelela omkhulu emiphumeleni efinyelela kude ekuthuthukisweni komnotho okwehlukene kwezindawo ezithintekile.. Ngale ndlela, "ukuhweba kwamakoloni" kwaboniswa, idolobha elikhulu lazuza enanini elingeziwe lomkhiqizo wezimboni elalinawo, ikoloni lalingaphansi kohlelo lwesivumelwano samakoloni, nomsebenzi wemakethe wabathumbi.

Ukulimaza emazingeni amakhulu, nokufaka izwekazi lase-Afrika emakhulwini eminyaka okubuyela emuva kwezomnotho nezinxushunxushu zezepolitiki, ubugqila babulimaza kakhulu kule ndawo yomhlaba. Kamuva, ukoloni oluhlelekile lwalandela lokho okwakuthiwa ukwahlukana kwe-Afrika ngekhulu le-XNUMX, lapho ukuhweba ngezigqila kwase kuqediwe emhlabeni wonke, imiphumela emibi engazange ilungiswe ngisho nangemva kokuqedwa kombuso ngekhulu lama-XNUMX.

ukuhweba okungunxantathu

Ngaleso sikhathi lapho ukuhweba okungunxantathu kwakusathuthuka, njengakulesi sikhathi, kwakukhona ingcindezi yokwehlisa izindleko ngokukhuphula ikhwalithi, okwenza ukuthi izinqumo ezibalulekile zithathwe.

Izixhumanisi zamazwekazi zazinkulu kakhulu kunalezo ezazivezwa ekubonisweni kokucaciswa kwezinhlangothi ezintathu zonxantathu. I-Asia njengoba izwekazi lesine lalifakiwe kulolu hambo, kwazise izindwangu ezazishintshaniswa ngezigqila esifundeni sase-Afrika zavela ngqo eNdiya, zisuka lapho zathunyelwa yizinkampani zaseFrance nezaseBrithani ezazisungulwe kule ndawo.

Kuyabonakala kulokhu kuziphatha noma isu lokuhweba elifakwe ngaphakathi kokuhweba okungunxantathu, ukufana nokuhweba kwamanje.

Kulezi zinsuku, izinkampani eziphumelela umhlaba wonke kanye nosomabhizinisi emkhakheni wezindwangu baphendukela emazweni ase-Asia ukusungula imikhiqizo yabo, ukuthola izinzuzo ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene njengezindleko zabasebenzi ezishibhile, ukusetshenziswa kwemithetho ebiza kancane kunasemazweni abo okudabuka kuwo, ukusondela kakhulu emithonjeni izinto zokusetshenziswa ezizosetshenziswa, hhayi njalo ezingeni eliphakeme kunalezo ezitholakala kwezinye izifunda.

Namuhla kungenzeka ukuthi kubhekwe ubunzima bomhlaba wonke emkhakheni wezomnotho, okuwukubonakaliswa kukodwa kohlobo lokushintshisana emazingeni amakhulu nokukala lokho kuhweba okungunxantathu okwakukhona ngesikhathi sako.

Omunye umehluko omkhulu okhona namuhla, ohlobene nokuhweba komhlaba wonke ngaleso sikhathi; kuhlobene nokuhamba kolwazi.

Ukuthuthuka kwamathuluzi ezobuchwepheshe anamuhla, i-inthanethi nokugeleza kwedatha, kunikeza izinsiza kubathengisi bezentengiselwano ezingeni lomhlaba jikelele ukuze bakwazi ukuphatha nokucubungula ileveli yolwazi olusiza ukuthathwa kwezinqumo kanye nethuba lokunciphisa izingozi., Ngokunemba okumangazayo.

Ukubeka umbono futhi sikhuthazwe yilokho okwakuyizimakethe ezingunxantathu kanye nomthelela walo kwezentengiselwano zesimanje, kusenza sizibuze Izisekelo zizobekwa ngaziphi izinguquko namuhla ngamamodeli amasha wokushintshisana ezohwebo azokwenzeka ngokuzayo?


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.