Ukuhlukahluka kweMacroeconomic

okuguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic
Kubalulekile ukujwayela okwehlukile okuguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic, ukwazi ukuthi ziyini nokuthi zisithonya kanjani njengezakhamuzi.

Ngalesi sizathu, ngezansi sizokutshela konke okuphathelene nokuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic futhi ukonga.

Ukuhlukahluka kweMacroeconomic, kwenzelwe ini?

La inhloso yokuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic, gxila ekutholeni ukuthi hlobo luni lomsebenzi wezomnotho ezweni futhi njengesisekelo ukholelwa ukuthi luzoguquka ezinyangeni kuleyo ndawo efanayo. Ukuze kwenziwe lezi zibalo, okwenziwayo kwenziwa ucabangele izinkomba ezithile esizokwazi ngazo isimo somnotho wezwe, liphi izinga labo lomncintiswano womhlaba futhi izwe libhekephi.

Ngemuva kokwenza lolu cwaningo ungazi yiziphi izinkampani ezisebenza kahle kakhulu ngaphakathi ezweni futhi, nokwenza kwaziwe ukuthi yiziphi izinkampani ezitholakala kangcono ngaphakathi kwalelo zwe.

Yiziphi izifundo ze-macroeconomic ezingasetshenziselwa

Izifundo eziguquguqukayo ze-macroeconomic zingasetshenziswa ukuthenga inkampani eyodwa noma eziningi ezweni. I-Macroeconomics ibalulekile ngoba yiyo esebenzisa imibandela nezincomo zepolitiki ezinjengezezimali.

Ngokusebenzisa okuguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic ungazi ukuzinza kwezindleko zezinto ngaphakathi kwezwe emakethe yamahhala. Kuyaqondakala ukuthi izwe lizinzile lapho izintengo zingakhuphuki noma zehle noma nini.

Nge-macroeconomics, kwenziwa umzamo wokuba nezinga eligcwele lomsebenzi kubo bonke abantu bezwe. IMacroeconomics igxile ekutadisheni zonke izinkambiso ezixhunywe ezweni namanye amazwe omhlaba.

Imvelo yezepolitiki kanye nokuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic

inqubomgomo yezomnotho

Ukuhlaziywa okwenziwe ukuthi kwazi Ukuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic, kufanele zenziwe njalo ukuze zikwazi ukunquma noma yiluphi uhlobo lobungozi bezepolitiki emnothweni wamanje noma emnothweni wesikhathi esizayo.

Lapho izimali zamukelwa emazweni aphesheya, le ngozi iphindwe kabili ngoba uhulumeni othengisayo angafihla ukusebenza noma abambe nempahla yezinkampani.

Yimaphi amasu asetshenziswayo

Lokhu kungenziwa ngokulungisa ukungena kwemali okulindelekile ngaphakathi kwephrojekthi. Ungakwenza futhi usebenzisa i- amanani ezaphulelo alungiswa engcupheni yesabelomali esiphelele sezwe.

Indlela efanele yokukwenza yile ukulungisa ukuhamba kwemali kumaphrojekthi ngamanye ezisebenzisa isethingi yomhlaba yamaphrojekthi ahlukile.

Kwenzekani lapho utshala imali phesheya

Zamukelwa nini utshalomali lwangaphandle, le ngozi iphindwe kabili ngoba uhulumeni othengisayo angafihla ukusebenza noma abambe nempahla yezinkampani.

Lokhu kungenziwa ngokulungisa ukungena kwemali okulindelekile ngaphakathi kwephrojekthi. Ungakwenza futhi usebenzisa i- amanani esaphulelo lokho kulungiswa kube sengozini yesabelomali esiphelele sezwe.

Indlela efanele yokwenza lokhu ukulungisa ukugeleza kwemali kumaphrojekthi ngamanye asebenzisa ukulungiswa komhlaba wonke kumaphrojekthi ahlukile.

Yiziphi eziguquguqukayo kakhulu ze-macroeconomic

Uhlu lokuguquguquka kwemicroeconomic

Ngokulandelayo sizobhekisisa i- okuguquguqukayo okubaluleke kakhulu kwe-macroeconomic:

Umkhiqizo wonyaka wonke ohlangene

Ngaphakathi kokuguquguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic, enye yezinto zokuqala ezibhekwayo yile I-GDP. Leli inani lezinsizakalo nezimpahla zezwe ezikhiqizwa izinkampani. Abantu abasebenza ngaphakathi kwendawo ngesikhathi esithile nabo bayabalwa. Imikhakha yezomnotho ekhona kuleli cala eyamabanga aphansi, aphezulu kanye nemfundo ephakeme.

Ukuze ube ukuguquguquka kwangempela kwezomnotho, zonke izimpahla ezikhiqizwe kulelo zwe kufanele zinakwe, kungakhathalekile ukuthi zithengisiwe noma cha. Isamba sakho konke futhi sifaka izinkampani zomhlaba wonke. Isibonelo, uma sifuna ukuguquguquka kweSpain, izinkampani zakwamanye amazwe zizocatshangelwa.

I-athikili ehlobene:
I-GDP ngezwe

Iphrimiyamu yobungozi

I-premium yobungozi noma ubungozi bezwe, kuyinto yesibili okufanele ibhekwe lapho kubalwa ukuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic. Iphrimiyamu yengozi yiprimiyamu enikezwa ngabatshalizimali lapho bethenga isikweletu sezwe.

Le mali eyengeziwe iyadingeka kubo bonke abatshalizimali ukuthenga ama-bond kunoma yiliphi izwe. Abatshalizimali banikezwa imbuyiselo ephezulu lapho bebeka engcupheni yokuthenga emazweni ukuze bathole inzuzo enhle.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Imali ekhokhelwa ubungozi iyithinta kanjani imakethe yamasheya?

Ibalwa kanjani le-premium?

Onke amazwe akhipha ama-bond ashintshaniswa izimakethe zesibili futhi lapho inani lenzalo lisethwe ngokuya ngokufunwa. Iphrimiyamu ibalwa ngomehluko phakathi kwezibopho zeminyaka eyi-10 izwe eliku-European Union elinalo, uma kuqhathaniswa nalezo ezikhishwe yiJalimane.

Ukwehla kwamandla emali

Ukwehla kwamandla emali kungenye ye okuguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic okubaluleke kakhulu, njengoba kuyiyona ekhomba ngqo ukwanda kwamanani ngendlela ejwayelekile.

Ngokuvamile, kwenziwa i-akhawunti yonyaka owodwa futhi lokhu akubandakanyi izimpahla zezwe kuphela, kodwa nazo zonke izinsizakalo.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Kuyini ukwehla kwamandla emali?

Yiziphi izici ezenzeka ngaphakathi kwamandla emali

Ngaphakathi ukwehla kwamandla emali kunezinto eziningi. Enye yezinto eziyinhloko ngukuthi ukufunwa; Lapho ukufunwa kwezwe kukhula, kepha izwe lingakulungele, kuyenyuka amanani.

Owesibili uthi isipho. Uma lokhu kwenzeka kungenxa yokuthi izindleko zabakhiqizi ziqala ukukhuphuka futhi baqala ukukhuphula amanani ukuze balondoloze inzuzo yabo.

Ngu izimbangela zomphakathi. Lokhu kwenzeka uma kwenzeka ukuthi ukwanda kwamanani kulindeleke ngokuzayo, kepha abaqoqi baqala ukukhokhisa kakhulu ngaphambi kwesikhathi.

Amanani wenzalo ngokuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic

Kungenye into ebhekelwa ukuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic. Ezweni, amanani enzalo abaluleke kakhulu yilezo ezibekwa yibhange elikhulu. Le mali ibolekwa nguhulumeni emabhange kanti lawa mabhange yona yona iyinika amanye amabhange noma abantu ngabanye.
Lapho leyo mali ibolekiswa, kususelwa kumanani wenzalo yalelo bhange futhi lokho kufanele kubuyiswe kanye nayo yonke imali esele.

Izinga lokushintshanisa

Elinye iphuzu elibalulekile kufayela le- Ukuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic isilinganiso sokushintshana. Izinga lokushintshaniswa lihlala lilinganiswa phakathi kwezimali ezimbili eziyinhloko futhi lokhu kunqunywa yi-European Central Bank. Izinga lokushintshaniswa lingenye yamaphuzu abaluleke kakhulu uma kukhulunywa ngokwazi ukuthi imali yezwe yehlisiwe noma yehliswa kabusha.

Ibhalansi yezinkokhelo

ibhalansi izinkokhelo ukubala eziguquguqukayo kwezomnotho

Ibhalansi yokukhokha Kuyinto okumele igcinwe engqondweni njalo lapho izama ukwazi okuguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic. Lapha, okubalwayo ukuhamba kwezimali izwe elinakho ngesikhathi esithile, okuvame ukuba unyaka.

Ebhalansi yezinkokhelo kunezinhlobo eziningana zokubala okuhlukile kwezomnotho:

  • Ibhalansi yezohwebo. Ibhalansi yezohwebo yiyona ebangela ukuthunyelwa ngaphandle kwezinhlobo zezimpahla, kanye nezinhlobo zemali engenayo.
  • Ukulingana kwezimpahla nezinsizakalo. Lapha ibhalansi yezohwebo nebhalansi yezinsizakalo iyangezwa. Yilapho izinsizakalo zezokuthutha, ezokuthutha, ezomshwalense nezokuvakasha, zonke izinhlobo zemali engenayo kanye nosizo lobuchwepheshe zingena.
  • Ibhalansi yamanje ye-akhawunti. Lapha kunezelwa nezinsizakalo zezwe, ngaphezu kokusebenza okwenziwe ngokudluliselwa. Leli bhalansi lifaka nokubuyiselwa kwabokufika abafika ezweni, usizo lomhlaba wonke olunikezwa amazwe amaningi noma iminikelo enikelwe ezinhlanganweni zamazwe omhlaba.
  • Isikali esiyisisekelo. Lapha, sinesamba se-akhawunti yamanje kanye nezinhlokodolobha zesikhathi eside.

Ukungasebenzi njengokuhlukahluka kwezomnotho ezweni

Ukuntuleka kwemisebenzi ezweni inani labantu abangasebenzi izwe elithile elinalo. Incazelo yomuntu ongasebenzi yilowo muntu ofuna ukusebenza kodwa angakwazi ukuthola umsebenzi hhayi bonke abantu abasezweni abangasebenzi ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukwazi izinga lokungasebenzi kwezwe, iphesenti labantu abangasebenzi kumele lithathwe inani labantu abasebenzayo.
Ukuze kuthiwe umuntu ungena emsebenzini, kufanele abe ngaphezu kweminyaka engu-16. Ngaphakathi kweSpain, kunezindlela ezimbili lapho isilinganiso sokungasebenzi singalinganiswa futhi yizinsizakalo zokuqashwa kukahulumeni noma ucwaningo lwabasebenzi.

Izinkomba zokuhlinzeka nokufunwa ngokuhlukahluka kwe-macroeconomic

Kulokhu, izinkomba zokuhlinzeka yilezo ezisitshela ngefayela le- Ukunikezwa kwezomnotho kwezwe. Phakathi kwalezi zinkomba kukhona izinkomba zokuhlinzekwa kwemboni, izinkomba zokwakha nezinkomba zesevisi.
Ngokuphathelene nezinkomba zokufuna, ziyizinkomba zokusetshenziswa, izinkomba zokufuna utshalomali futhi ekugcineni lezo zihlobene nokuhweba kwangaphandle.

Ukufunwa okuhlanganisiwe nokunikezwa

imodeli yezibalo yokuphakelwa kanye nokufunwa kusisiza ukuba sihlaziye okuguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic

Le modeli zama ukuchaza okwamanje ezomnotho ukuhlaziya ukukhiqizwa kwenkathi nezintengo ezikhona ngemisebenzi ehlanganisiwe yokunikezela neyokufuna. Kuyithuluzi eliyisisekelo ukutadisha ukuguquguquka okuhlukile ekukhiqizweni nasezintweni ngenxa yemodeli yezibalo engamelwa ngokusobala. Ngenxa yaleli thuluzi, lisebenza ukuxhasa ukuqonda imiphumela yezinqubomgomo ezahlukahlukene zezomnotho futhi ngenxa yalokho likwazi ukuhlaziya umthelela kokuguquguqukayo kwe-macroeconomic.

Izingxenye zokwenza lokhu kuhlaziywa yilezo zokuhlinzekwa nezidingo ezihlanganisiwe.

  • Ukufunwa okuhlanganisiwe: Kuyisibonakaliso semakethe yezimpahla nezinsizakalo. Yakhiwa ukusetshenziswa kwangasese, ukutshalwa kwezimali kwangasese, ukusetshenziswa kwemali yomphakathi, futhi ezimweni zomnotho ovulekile wokuthengiswa okuphelele (okuthekelisa ngaphandle kokungeniswa).
  • Umnikelo ungeziwe: Inani eliphelele lezimpahla nezinsizakalo ezinikezwa ngamanani ahlukile ngokwesilinganiso. Ngakho-ke le modeli isetshenziselwa ukuhlaziya ukwehla kwamandla emali, ukukhula, ukuntuleka kwemisebenzi futhi, ngamafuphi, nendima edlalwa yinqubomgomo yemali.

Ukuhlukahluka kweMicroeconomic: ziyini?

Ingabe lezo zinto eziguqukayo othinta ukuziphatha komnotho ngamunye. Bangaba yizinkampani nabathengi, abatshalizimali, abasebenzi kanye nokuxhumana kwabo nezimakethe. Izinto eziqala ukusebenza ezizohlaziywa imvamisa yizimpahla, amanani, izimakethe kanye nabenzeli abahlukahlukene bezomnotho.

Ngokuya ngokuthi iyiphi i-ejenti ngayinye efundwayo, ezinye izifundo noma ezinye ziyasebenza. Isibonelo kubathengi, inkolelo yomthengi iyacatshangelwa. Ukusuka lapha, izintandokazi zakho, amabhajethi, usizo lwemikhiqizo nezinhlobo zezimpahla, zikuvumela ukuthi uthole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kuzokwenzeka kanjani. Ngokufanayo, ezinkampanini, kunethiyori yomkhiqizi njengomsebenzi wokukhiqiza, ukukhulisa inzuzo kanye namajika wezindleko. Ngokuqondene nezimakethe, ukwakheka namamodeli wokuncintisana okuphelele nokungaphelele kuvame ukuhlaziywa.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana ayi-4, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   UCARMEN JULIANA VERDESOTO CHANGO kusho

    NGIZITHANDA KAKHULU IZIMO ZAKHO EZINDAWENI EZAHLUKENE ZOMNOTHO OGxile KUZO. NGINGUMLANDELI WEZINCWADI ZAKHO, NGINGUMFUNDI WOKUPHATHWA KWEBHIZINISI FUTHI IZINCWADI ZAKHO ZIWUSIZO KAKHULU UMSEBENZI WAMI.

    HALALISWA SUSANA URBANO ..

    IGAMA LAMI NGinguJULIANA ..

    NGIVELA KU-ECUADOR ..

  2.   José kusho

    Lezi zincwadi kufanele zifunde bonke abantu futhi zizoguqula umhlaba ezicini eziningi, kubaluleke kangakanani ukuba nomqondo wokuthi umnotho wamazwe ahlukene uhamba kanjani ngaleyo ndlela uthathe ezinye izindlela. Ukubingelela okuvela eQuito - e-Ecuador.

  3.   VULA kusho

    Ulwazi oluhle; yize ibhalwe kabi kabi kanti ezinye izingxenye azivumelani.

  4.   UCarlos R. Grado Salayandia kusho

    Ukusetshenziswa kokuguquguqukayo kwezomnotho kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi izwe linemithombo ethembekile, yangempela. inhloso futhi ifike ngesikhathi ngokuguquguqukayo kwezomnotho okuyisisekelo, ukuze bazi ukuthambekela kwabo kwangempela futhi okufika ngesikhathi, ukulungiselela izinhlelo eziphelele zezomnotho kanye nezibikezelo, ukuze amayunithi ezomnotho akwazi ukwenza izinqumo eduze kweqiniso lesikhathi esizayo, asungule uhlelo lokulawula lalezi zinto eziguqukayo, futhi ngaphezu kwakho konke ukusungula izindlela zokulinganisa ukwazi ukuthambekela kwazo, imiphumela kanye nokuthambekela emnothweni wamayunithi ezomnotho.