Yini i-Index ye-Gini?

iyini inkomba yegini

Lesi sikhathi sizokhuluma ngaso Inkomba yeGini Ukwenza lokhu, sizokwethula kafushane mayelana nokuthi a icendice yiyona ukumelwa kwamanani kokwehluka okukhona Ngokuphathelene nokwenzeka kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo, izenzakalo zingaba nganoma yiluphi uhlobo, kodwa isiphetho sayo esiyinhloko igrafu enquma shazi yonke idatha yezibalo, lokhu kwenzelwa ukusabalalisa kanye / noma ukuqonda imininingwane.

Inkomba yokungalingani isilinganiso esifingqa indlela okusatshalaliswa ngayo okuguquguqukayo, noma kungaba yini, phakathi kweqoqo labantu. Endabeni yokungalingani kwezomnotho, ukuguquguquka kwesilinganiso kuvamise ukusetshenziswa kwemali kwemindeni, abantu abahlala ndawonye noma abantu ngabanye. Isibalo sezibalo sase-Italy Spread Gini, Ngakha inkomba ukusetshenziswa kwayo ukukala izinga lokungalingani phakathi kwezakhamizi ezikhona zesifunda esithile. Ngokungafani nenkomba, i-coefficient ibalwa njengengxenye yengxenye yezindawo ezikumdwebo womuntu owaziwayo "Ijika leLorenz"

I-coefficient yeGini inenombolo ephakathi kuka-0 no-1, lapho u-0 elingana nokulingana okuphelele, lapho wonke umuntu enemali efanayo, kuyilapho inani lezinombolo 1 lifana nokungalingani okuphelele, lapho umuntu oyedwa kuphela engenayo futhi bonke abanye bengenakho. I-Gini Index yi-coefficient yeGini, kodwa ivezwe ngokubhekisele kokungu-100, ngokungafani ne-coefficient ehambelana namanani ezinombolo zamanani akhona kuphela phakathi kuka-0 no-1, lokhu ukusheshisa ukuqonda kwamagrafu, futhi njengokusatshalaliswa kwemiphumela etholakele.

Ngaphakathi kokuhlukaniswa kokungalingani kunezinyathelo ezimbili ezinkulu ezisetshenziswa emibhalweni, lezi ziqoqo yilezi: izinyathelo ezinhle, ezihambelana nalezo ezingabhekiseli enhlalakahleni yomphakathi. Ngenkathi kukhona futhi i- izinyathelo ezijwayelekile, okungafani nalokho okuhle, okususelwa ekusebenzeni kwenhlalakahle eqondile. Ngokuya ngesikhombi esikhethiwe, izinkambiso noma imingcele lapho kuqhathaniswa ukusatshalaliswa kwemali engenayo kuchaziwe.

Ingxenye yezakhiwo zenkomba ye-Gini noma i-coefficient yeGini yilezi:

Inkomba Yomhlaba Wonke

  • Imvamisa ukuhlanganiswa okucacile kusetshenziselwa ukucacisa indawo ephakathi komugqa wokulingana okuphelele nejika laseLorenz, lokhu kubhekwa njengenqubo ekahle, kepha-ke, kunamacala lapho incazelo ecacile yejika leLorenz ingaziwa, ngakho-ke, ezinye izindlela kuyasetshenziswa, njengamafomula ahlukahlukene anenani elilinganiselwe lezengezo, izinqubo kanye namafomula kuyahlukahluka ngokuya ngecala elicatshangelwe.
  • Yize umphumela owuthandayo uyigrafu eveza izinkomba zokungalingani ngendlela elula futhi esebenzayo, akunconywa kakhulu ukuthi ukuhlolwa okubukwayo kwenziwe uma kukhulunywa ngamajika amabili aseLorenz, ngoba lokhu kuhlola kungaba nephutha, esikhundleni salokho Kunconywa ukuthi uqhathanise ukungalingani okumelelwa ngokuhlukile, kubalwa izinkomba ze-Gini ezihambelana nejika ngalinye.
  • Noma iyiphi ijika leLorenz noma kunalokho; wonke amajika e-Lorenz adlula ejikeni noma kulayini ohlanganisa amaphuzu kuzixhumanisi ezilandelayo: (0, 0) kanye (1, 1)
  • I-coefficient yetafula lokuhlukahluka inezakhiwo ezingaqhathaniswa nalezo zenkomba yeGini.

Ijika leLorenz.

Inkomba yeGini

Ijika le-Lorenz ukumelwa okuyisithombe okusetshenziselwa ukumela ukusatshalaliswa okuhlobene kokuguqukayo kusizinda esinikeziwe. Imvamisa, isizinda lapho leli curve livela khona ukumelwa kwesethi yezimpahla noma izinsizakalo esifundeni, lokhu ngokusebenzisa ijika leLorenz ngokuhlangana nenkomba yeGini noma i-coefficient yeGini. Umbhali wale curve ngu UMax O. Lorenz ngonyaka 1905.

Ubudlelwano phakathi kwejika leLorenz ne-coefficient yeGini.

Ngokubambisana neLorenz Curve singabala inkomba yeGini, simane sihlukanise indawo esele phakathi kwejika nomugqa "wokulingana", lokhu kuyindawo ephelele esele ngaphansi kwejika. Ngale ndlela sithola inani elilinganayo noma siphindaphinde umphumela ngo-100, sithola iphesenti.

Kokubili inkomba yeGini neLorenz Curve kuthuthukiswa njengezindlela zokukhomba ukungalingani phakathi kwabantu bendawo (isizwe, izwe, indawo, njll.), Ukuqonda ukuthi ukulingana okukhona kukhona phakathi kwabakhileyo, kukwanda ukusondela kwejika umugqa ophelele, ngenkathi uphikisana nawo, ukungalingani okukhulu phakathi kwenani labantu bendawo, ijika liba likhulu ngokwengeziwe.

Uyini umsebenzi we-Gini Index?

Yini i-Index yeGini?

Esifundweni sokungalingani, kukhona ukuhlinzekwa kwezindlela eziningi nezinhlobonhlobo zokuchaza indlela imali esatshalaliswa ngayo phakathi kwamaqembu ahlukene abantu emphakathini noma eqenjini labantu abasendaweni ethile, ezinye zalezi zindlela zinjengalezi: ukuhleleka kolwazi, izinkomba zokungalingani nemidwebo yokuhlakaza.

Iqiniso lokucacisa umdwebo wokubukwa kokwabiwa kwemali kungumsebenzi owusizo ngempela ekuhlaziyweni kwe- ukungalingani, ngoba kusivumela ukuthi sikhombe izici zesimo sokusabalalisa ezingezinye izindlela ezingeke zenzeke noma okungenani kungaba umsebenzi onzima kakhulu.

Ukusetshenziswa kwenkomba yeGini.

Kunezinga elithile lokungalingani kwezomnotho emphakathini othile futhi ukuvela kwalo mphakathi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kuba yisihloko sentshisekelo kosomnotho abaningi kanye nemibono yomphakathi jikelele. Kunezihlaziyo ezahlukahlukene ezenziwayo maqondana nokuhlolwa kwezinga lokungalingani okukhona emphakathini. Ngesikhathi somlando wokuhlaziywa kwezomnotho, izinkomba ezahlukahlukene sezivele ziphakanyisiwe zocwaningo oludumile lokungalingani; Lokhu, noma kunjalo, akuzange kube nemiphumela ethelayo njengaleyo eyabizwa izazi zalolo daba njenge- "Gini Concentration Coefficient". Njengoba le nkomba ilula ukuyihumusha, ibuye isetshenziswe njalo njengesethenjwa senkulumompikiswano ngokusebenza kokungalingani nemiphumela yako ezingeni labantu lokuphila esifundeni.

Phakathi kwemisebenzi yokuqala noma kunalokho umsebenzi wokuqala ohlongoze ukusetshenziswa kwemisebenzi yezenhlalakahle ukukala izinsuku zokungalingani kusukela onyakeni 1920, yenziwe ngu DaltonNgesikhathi sophenyo, uDalton, kuhlongozwe ukubala nokubona ukulahleka kwenhlalakahle okubangelwa ukwabiwa ngokulinganayo kwemali engenayo phakathi kwabantu. Kusetshenziswa umsebenzi wokwehlukanisa ohlukanisiwe, olinganayo, owengezelayo, futhi odingekayo weholo, uDalton uchaze lokho okwakuzokwaziwa kamuva njengeDalton Index.

Ukucatshangelwa ngenkomba yeGini.

inkomba ye-gini nejika lama-lorens

  • Ngaphakathi kwethiyori, kunezinye izindlela ezi-4 ezibhekwa njengokukhiqiza uku-oda kwedatha, ngaphandle kwalokhu lezo ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ngokuphindaphindiwe "ukusatshalaliswa kwemvamisa" kanye "nejika leLorenz", okusetshenziswe kancane, kepha kusasebenza kakhulu. kukhona "imidwebo yokubonisa" kanye "nokuguqulwa kwe-logarithmic".
  • Yini ukuguquguquka okukhonjisiwe ukukala ukungalingani? Ngaphakathi komsebenzi wobuciko, kunempikiswano mayelana nokuhlukahluka okungathathwa ngokuthi "kufanelekile" ekuhlolweni kokuhlungwa kwemali engenayo. Kunezinhlobonhlobo ezimbili ezinkulu ezilawula impikiswano kule mpikiswano; imali engenayo ngomuntu ngamunye noma i isiyonke imali engenayo yasekhaya. Kungashiwo ukuthi zombili eziguqukayo zilungile, konke ngokwesidingo sokumbozwa maqondana nocwaningo oluzokwenziwa. Ngalesi sizathu, kuyadingeka ukuthi ubuze okokuqala, iyini inhloso yalesi silinganiso? Ukuze uqhubeke noma uqhubekele ekukhetheni kokuguquguqukayo okuhambelana naleli cala elithile.
  • Cabanga ngokuhlukaniswa kwenkomba yeGini. Ngaphakathi kokuhlaziywa kokungalingani, ukubola kuyisisekelo esimaphakathi, ngoba kufanele sazi imvelaphi yokungalingani okukhulu okuthinta ukulingana ezingeni eliyisisekelo njengekhaya.
  • Ngaphandle kokuthandwa nokulula kwenqubo yokubala, inkomba yeGini ayihambisani nempahla ye- "ukubola okwengezayo”. Ngalokhu sisho ukuthi ukubalwa okwenziwa kweqembu elincane noma amaqenjana athile ngeke ngaso sonke isikhathi kuqondane nenani le-coefficient yoku-oda inani labantu ngamazinga eholo.
  • Yini imithombo yedatha yokukala ukungalingani? Ngokwethiyori, izincwadi nezindatshana eziningi zokulinganisa ukungalingani zibheka futhi ziphakamise amafomula acabanga ukuthi idatha yemali engenayo esetshenzisiwe iyisampula engahleliwe. Lokhu kwehlukile emsebenzini wobumbano, ngoba empeleni imininingwane iqoqwa ocwaningweni olwenziwa emakhaya, lapho ukuhlonzwa kwamayunithi okubheka kwenziwa ngesigaba esisodwa noma eziningi zokukhetha futhi emathubeni amaningi amakhaya akhethwa ngokungalingani amathuba. Lokhu kusho ukuthi i-coefficient empeleni iyindlela yokulinganisa.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

*

*

  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.