Ungahlukanisa kanjani iphothifoliyo yesikhwama sokutshala imali?

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Enye yezinto ongakhetha kuzo abatshalizimali kulo nyaka wukuthola izinkontileka zezimali zokutshala imali. Kepha banenkinga yokuthi isigaba sale mikhiqizo yezezimali miningi futhi yehlukile ngemvelo. Kusuka kokutholwayo kwamasheya kuya kumali engenayo engaguquki noma ngisho nakwezinye izinketho. Kunoma ikuphi ukwenzeka, nangaphakathi kwalesi simo, Izikhwama Zotshalomali zibhalise a ukubuya okuhle kuka-0,77%, lapho beqongelela khona inzuzo engu-6,5% ezinyangeni eziyishumi nanye zokugcina zonyaka, okuyisilinganiso esingokomlando kokuqoqiwe kuze kube nguNovemba wonyaka odlule.

Esinye sezihluthulelo zokungenzi amaphutha kulolu hlobo lokutshala imali ukwenza ukwehlukahlukana ekusebenzeni. Ngenye yezindlela ezinhle kakhulu zabatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi ukuthi balondoloze izimali zabo abazitshalile ezimweni ezingathandeki ezingenzeka kulo nyaka. Lokho wukuthi, ukuze imali yethu ingafakwa kubhasikidi owodwa, kepha kunalokho, yenziwa ibe semthethweni ngokusebenzisa obhasikidi abehlukene eyenziwe ngabaphathi.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kungaba isu lokutshala imali elisebenza kahle kakhulu ukwenza ngcono amamaki wokulamula ahlinzekwa yile mikhiqizo yezezimali. Ngaphansi kwamaphesenti athile azohamba kuya ngephrofayili okwethulwa ngabatshalizimali abathengisayo: abanolaka, abaphakathi noma abalondolozayo. Ngakho-ke, kungakhiwa amaphothifoliyo emodeli ahluke kakhulu angaveza imiphumela ehluke kakhulu komunye nomunye. Kunoma ikuphi, akudingeki ukuthi bakhiqize kusuka kunkambu efanayo kumafa wezezimali akhethiwe. Kumele ukuthi bavele emikhakheni yotshalo-mali ehluke kakhulu ekukhanyeni kwabo.

Hlukanisa ngezindawo ezindawo

Okokuqala, kuyinto efiselekayo ukuthi izindawo ezifanayo azikhethiwe esikhwameni ngasinye sezimali zokutshala imali noma kwempahla yezimali eyakha iphothifoliyo kusukela manje kuqhubeke. Kufanele ukhethe labo abethula umkhuba ongcono ukuze imali ikwazi ukuphinda ibalule kusukela kumzuzu oqondile wokubhaliswa kwezihloko zabo. Ngenkathi ngakolunye uhlangothi, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthonya lesi sici, esisebenziseka kakhulu ukufeza isu lokutshala imali liphephe kakhulu kunakuqala futhi elingasenza silondoloze ukonga ezinye izinhlobo zokucatshangelwa kwezobuchwepheshe.

Ngaphakathi kwale ndlela yokusebenza emakethe yamasheya, alikho iqiniso elincane lokuthi kusukela manje kuqhubeke, izikhundla ezimakethe zezimali zaseYurophu nase-United States azikwazi ukungabikho. Njengama-axis aphakathi nokutshalwa kwezimali kwethu futhi lokho kuzofakwa umnikelo omncane ezikhwameni ngezinguquko ezinhle kakhulu ezimakethe zezimali ezisafufusa. Njengesibonelo, kungenzeka ngalabo abaqhamuka ku- India, China noma ngisho nokwazi okuyingozi kakhulu eRussia. Banamandla wokubuyekeza aphakeme kakhulu kunasekuthengisweni kwesitoko kwendabuko, yize bezolungiswa ngobukhulu obuthile ngenxa yokuqina kwabo okukhulu.

Hlanganisa imali engenayo engaguquki nemali engenayo eguquguqukayo

Esinye sezihluthulelo zempumelelo yokutshalwa kwemali kwethu emikhiqizweni yalezi zici ilele enhlanganisweni ehlakaniphile kakhulu yezimpahla zombili zezimali. Ngokwesilinganiso esilingana nephrofayili esiyethula njengabatshalizimali abancane nabaphakathi futhi lokho kuzocacisa ukuthi umphumela wokugcina wokusebenza, ngandlela thile. Kepha ezimeni ezingekho, uma kungabikho ukungahambisani kwethu nezimali zokutshala imali kulezi zinyanga ezizayo esinazo. Kuze kube seqophelweni lokuthi kumele zihlaziywe kahle ukuze zenze amaphutha amancane kakhulu ekukhetheni kwethu izimali zokutshala imali.

Kepha akudingeki uzikhawulele kulezi zimpahla ezinkulu zezezimali. Uma kungenjalo, ngokuphambene nalokho, ungakhetha neminye imikhiqizo yezimali noma ezinye izindlela zokutshala imali. Ngaphansi kwezilinganiso esezivele zisungulwe ngabaphathi abaphethe ukumaketha le mikhiqizo yezezimali. Hhayi kuphela ukuthi bangaba nenzuzo enkulu kusuka manje, kepha bangakwazi ukuzivumelanisa kangcono nezimo ezimbi kakhulu ezimakethe zezimali. Ngemiphumela engakumangaza ngokunakwa okuningi.

Kuthuthukiswe ngaphansi kokuphathwa okusebenzayo ?

Akungabazeki ukuthi ukuphathwa okusebenzayo kungaba elinye lamasu wokutshala imali ongcono kakhulu okwehlukanisa imali oyitshalile. Ngoba ingakusiza ukuxazulula izimo ezingezinhle kakhulu ezimakethe zezezimali nalapho ungathola khona imali inzuzo nge-solvency ethile ekuhambeni okuvulekile kwemali yezimali. Ngenkathi ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuyiqiniso elincane ukuthi lolu hlelo lokutshala izimali njengamanje lwenziwa njengendlela yoku

Ngaphansi kohlelo lokuphatha olusebenzayo unethuba elihle lokuthi ungakwazi ukuzivumelanisa nazo zonke izimo ezingadalwa noma zenziwe. Ngale ndlela, iphothifoliyo yezimpahla zezimali iyashintshwa ngokuya ngokuhlukahluka kwezomnotho okuthuthuka eminyakeni edlule. Ngaphandle kokuthi wenze noma yini ngokwakho ngoba kuzoba umphathi uqobo ophethe ukuguqula iphothifoliyo yokutshala imali. Lo msebenzi wenziwa ngezikhathi ezithile nangezinguquko ezingathinta cishe uhhafu wezimali zokutshala imali. Noma yiziphi izimpahla zezimali le mikhiqizo yezezimali yenziwe ngayo.

Ukwakhiwa kwephothifoliyo

Kwezinye izimo, la maphothifoliyo ngokuvamile afaka izimali zezinto njengento yokugcina ukonga ezikhathini ezibucayi kakhulu ezimakethe zezimali. Njengengxenye encane ehlukile yokusebenzisa ngokunenzuzo ukuthambekela okuhle kwezinye izimpahla zezezimali. Yize kuyindlela encane ngoba lokhu kuyindlela eyingozi kunezinye futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu akukho ukuvezwa okuningi ezikhundleni zabo. Ngenkathi ngakolunye uhlangothi, enye impahla yezezimali le mikhiqizo yotshalo-mali evame ukuyihlanganisa isikweletu somphakathi esisekelwe ezindaweni ezithile ezingangeza inani kutshalomali lwalezi zimali.

Kumele futhi sigcizelele ukuthi ayikho imingcele yokufaka kulezi zinhlobo, kuphela leyo izinkampani zabaphathi ezibheka njengezithandekayo, kuzwelonke nangaphandle kwemingcele yethu. Lapho ngomzuzu ngamunye kungaba okwehlukile njengoba ubonile kumafomethi wokugcina owabhalisile eminyakeni yamuva. Ngokwalo mbono, kuyiqiniso ukuthi unamamodeli amaningi ongakhetha kuwo futhi uwaqondise esikhathini saphakade esinconywayo phakathi kweminyaka emithathu nengu-3 cishe. Ukuze ngale ndlela, ukwazi ukuklama isu lokutshala imali eliphumelelayo futhi usesimweni sokwakha ukushintshaniswa kokulondeka okungathathi cala eminyakeni embalwa ezayo engaphambili. Kuya ngezimpawu onikela ngazo kusukela ekuqaleni ngoba kusekupheleni kosuku ukuthi imayelana nani.

Ukuvela kwezimali

Izikhwama Zotshalomali zibhekane nokukhula kwama-euro ayizigidi ezingama-2.105 futhi zibeka umthamo wazo wezimpahla ngama-euro ayizigidi ezingama-273.429, 6,2%, ngokusho kwe-Association of Collective Investment Institutions and Pension Funds (Inverco). Lapho Izikhwama Zotshalomali ziqongelela ukwanda kokulingana kwama-euro ayizigidi eziyi-15.915. Futhi ngalesi sikhathi izimakethe zisebenzisane kakhulu ekukhuleni kweziKhwama Zotshalomali, kugcina ukuthambekela okuhle kwenyanga edlule.

Eqinisweni, ukuvela okuhle kwezimakethe zezimali kudale ukwehla kokungavumi kwengozi kubabambiqhaza, abaye bafuna phakathi nezinyanga Izimali ngokuvezwa okukhulu emakethe yamasheya. Lokhu, kanye nokukhula kwenani lamaphothifoliyo ngenxa yomphumela wemakethe, kuvumele imikhakha etholakala ngamasheya ukuthi iveze ukukhula okukhulu kakhulu kwezinye izimo.

Ngokwesigaba sezimali

Ngakho-ke, i-International Equity Funds ikhombisa ukukhula ngenyanga okungaphezulu kuka-5% ngamaphesenti, futhi ngaphezulu kwezigidi eziyi-1.839 ngokuphelele. Ezinyangeni eziyishumi nanye zokuqala zonyaka, iZikhwama Zamazwe Ngamazwe Ezihlangene zathola ukukhula okuphezulu kakhulu kwazo zonke izigaba ngamaphesenti (ukwanda ngama-25%). Lokhu kusho ukuthi ama-euro ayizigidi ezingama-7.400 ngaphezulu kokuchayeka kuma-International Equities (kokunye okuhlukile). IMixed Fixed Income Funds nayo ibhalise ukuhamba kwemali okuphelele kwe- okokufaka okuhle, okuhlangene nokubuyekezwa kwemakethe okuvumela lesi sigaba ukuthi sandise inani laso lezimpahla ngo-2,5% uma kuqhathaniswa nenyanga edlule (948 million ngaphezulu kuka-Okthoba).

Ngokufanayo, iMixed Equity Funds, okuwukuthi, ngokuvezwa kakhulu kwamasheya kwiphothifoliyo yawo (phakathi kuka-30% no-75% wengqikithi), ikhombisa ukukhula okuphezulu enyangeni, futhi ingemuva kwalabo beInternational Variable Income ngokwamaphesenti ukukhula ngonyaka (19,8% ngaphezu kukaDisemba 2018). Ngokuphambene nalokho, IziKhwama Zemali Engenayo Engaguquki, Izimali Eziqinisekisiwe kanye nalabo abanenhloso yenzuzo engaqinisekisiwe abanokuhlangenwe nakho kwehla ngenani eliphelele ngoNovemba ukuthi ndawonye lidlule ama-euro ayizigidi eziyi-1.600.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.