Izilinganiso zikaPaul Krugman

UPaul Krugman uwine iNobel Prize ku-Economics

Uma kukhulunywa ngokufunda nokwenza imibono, kuyalulekwa ngaso sonke isikhathi ukwazi imibono ehlukene namaphuzu wokubuka. Ikakhulukazi emhlabeni wezezimali kuyalulekwa ukwazi okuncane ngosomnotho abadume kakhulu, imibono yabo, imibono kanye nezindlela zabo. Ngakho-ke, imishwana kaPaul Krugman, owine iNobel Prize ku-Economics, ingaba wusizo olukhulu kithina.

Lesi sazi somnotho esihle sigxeka amaphuzu ahlukahlukene kwezenhlalo nakwezombusazwe aphazamisa umnotho njengoba sazi namuhla. Ngikweluleka ukuthi ufunde imishwana evelele kakhulu kaPaul Krugman. Ngaphezu kwalokho, sizophinde futhi sikhulume ngombono wokuhweba owasungula futhi lokho kwakucabanga inguquko ephelele.

Imishwana engu-80 ehamba phambili kaPaul Krugman

UPaul Krugman uthweswe iziqu kwezomnotho

Izinkulumo zikaPaul Krugman zivelele ikakhulukazi ngokusola kwayo okunokhahlo kokuntuleka kobuqotho bamasiko kanye nezinzuzo ezijatshulelwa kuphela ngabantu abacebile, njengokufinyelela emanyuvesi noma intela ephansi. Ake sibone imishwana yakhe engama-80 ekhumbuleka ngezansi:

  1. "Akufanele ukuba nenguquko uma kutholakala ngokwenza izivumelwano eziningi kangangokuba kugcine sekukugxeka ukwehluleka."
  2. “Ukunxenxa abantu abangazethembi ngokwengqondo nakho kubaluleke kakhulu kunalokho okubukeka. Ngenxa yokuthi umnotho uthinta kakhulu impilo, wonke umuntu ufuna ukuba nombono. "
  3. "Kubantu abaningi, inqubo yokulungisa umnotho bekungeke ibe buhlungu noma ibandakanye ukuzidela."
  4. "I-zombie engiyithanda kakhulu inkolelo yokuthi ukwehlisa intela kwabacebile kwenza umnotho ukhule futhi kudale nengcebo egcina isabalale kubantu bonke."
  5. «Okufanele ukuthi ukufune ngempela, ezweni elihlale libhekene nezimanga ezingemnandi, ubuqotho bengqondo: ukuzimisela ukubhekana namaqiniso, noma ngabe bengavumelani nemibono yakho, kanye nekhono lokuvuma amaphutha bese ushintsha inkambo.»
  6. "Ukuqeda lokhu kucindezelwa kungaba yinto engenza ukuthi cishe wonke umuntu azizwe emuhle, ngaphandle kwalabo abanenkinga yezepolitiki, yezenhlalo kanye neyomsebenzi ezimfundisweni zezomnotho ezinenkani."
  7. "Abaningi bathi, ngokwesibonelo, imigomo yokwamukelwa, ngisho nasemanyuvesi aphambili, yehliswe kakhulu."
  8. “Uma ukunwetshwa kwemali kungasebenzi, ukwandiswa kwezimali, njengezinhlelo zemisebenzi yomphakathi ezixhaswe ngemali mboleko, kumele kuthathe indawo yazo. Ukunwetshwa kwezimali okunjalo kunganqamula umjikelezo omubi wokusetshenziswa kwemali ephansi nemali engenayo ephansi. "
  9. Kepha khumbula ukuthi lokhu akusiyona incomo yenqubomgomo ejwayelekile; empeleni kuyisu lokuphelelwa yithemba, umuthi oyingozi okumele unikezwe kuphela lapho ikhambi elijwayelekile lokuthengwa kwamasheya lenqubomgomo yezimali lihlulekile. " - Ngosizo lomphakathi.
  10. «Lesi sikhathi eside ngumhlahlandlela ongalungile wokuqonda okwamanje. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi sizobe sesifile sonke. "
  11. "Ukwehlisa intela kwabacebile akwenzi ingcebo, kusebenza kuphela ukuceba abacebile."
  12. Kuyiphutha likabani ukushintshwa kwengxoxo ebucayi ngokuhwebelana komhlaba nalokho esengikuthathe njengokuthi i-pop yamazwe omhlaba? »
  13. Kungani iYurophu isabele kabi enkingeni yayo? Sengivele ngiphawulile ingxenye yempendulo: abaholi abaningi baleli zwekazi babonakala bezimisele ukuyenza ibe yindaba le ndaba futhi bakholelwa ukuthi labo ababhekene nobunzima - hhayi iGrisi kuphela - bafike lapho ngenxa yokungabophezeleki kwezimali. "
  14. "Kucatshangwa ukuthi ingxenye yesithathu yabantu abangena eHarvard University bebengeke bangeniswe eminyakeni engamashumi amabili edlule."
  15. "Ngezinga elithile, yiqiniso, kungumphumela wemvelo yabantu eyisisekelo: ubuvila bengqondo, ngisho naphakathi kwalabo ababengabonakala njengabahlakaniphile nabanokujula, kuyohlale kungamandla amakhulu."
  16. "Uma uzinikela kwezepolitiki ezindaweni eziseduze neRepublican Party, kufanele uyivikele le mibono, noma ngabe uyazi ukuthi ingamanga."
  17. "Izazi zezomnotho zenza umsebenzi olula futhi ongenamsebenzi uma, ngezikhathi ezinzima, konke abangasitshela khona ukuthi uma isivunguvungu sidlula amanzi azophinde adambe futhi."
  18. "Uma inkinga bekungudoti wezimali, ubukhulu bezimali kufanele kube yisixazululo."
  19. Futhi iqhaza labahleli, abavame ukukhetha lokho okushiwo ngabezizwe bamazwe omhlaba jikelele, akumele kunganakwa emibonweni enzima ngokuxakile yabantu abangafunda ama-akhawunti kazwelonke noma baqonde ukuthi ibhalansi yezohwebo nayo ingumehluko phakathi kokonga nokutshala imali. »
  20. "Angiyena usanta kodwa ngizimisele ukukhokha intela ethe xaxa."
  21. "Ekuqaleni kwenkinga yezezimali, abenzi bobuqili bathi ubudlelwano bethu neChina buphenduke obulungile futhi obulinganiselayo, ngemuva kwakho konke: bebesidayisela amathoyizi anobuthi nezinhlanzi ezingcolisiwe, futhi besizidayisela izimfihlo zomgunyathi."
  22. "Ngamafuphi, impumelelo yobushoshovu be-macroeconomic, ngokomqondo nangokwenza, yenze ukuthi kube lula ukuthi kusetshenziswe ama-microeconomics emakethe yamahhala."
  23. "Abacebile basebenzisa imali eningi ukwenza abantu bakholelwe ukuthi ukwehlisa intela kuhle kubo bonke abantu:"
  24. «The American Prospect Bangabaphikisi abafanayo bamazwe aphesheya; Basebenzisa ngamabomu omagazini babo njengezindawo zokulwa impi elwa nobuhlakani. "
  25. "Umnotho uvezwa njengomsebenzi wokuziphatha, kodwa ngenye indlela: empeleni, izono esizisolayo azange zenzeke."
  26. "Uma sithola ukuthi abafokazi abavela emkhathini bebehlela ukusihlasela futhi bekufanele sifake isethembiso esikhulu sokuzivikela kuleso songo ukuze ukwehla kwamandla emali nesabelomali kuthathe isihlalo esingemuva, le nkinga izophela ezinyangeni eziyi-18."
  27. "Izimo zepolitiki zinomthelela omkhulu ekwabiweni kwemali engenayo."
  28. "Ngicabanga ukuthi uma nje izinto zokubasa ezimbiwa phansi zishibhile, abantu bazozisebenzisa futhi bahlehle nobuchwepheshe obusha."
  29. “Kuncane esikwenzile ukuxazulula izinkinga ezidale Ukwehla Komnotho Okukhulu. Asisifundanga isifundo sethu. "
  30. "Sisesimweni lapho kubonakala sengathi kunqoba kakhulu."
  31. Kungani umsebenzi ohambisana nenqubomgomo ungangqubuzani nocwaningo lwami? real? Ngicabanga ukuthi kungenxa yokuthi ngikwazile ukubhekana nezinkinga zenqubomgomo ngisebenzisa cishe leyo ndlela engiyisebenzisa emsebenzini wami oyisisekelo. "
  32. "Uma ungaphumelelanga okokuqala, zama kaninginingi."
  33. “Abasebenzi bamanqikanqika ukwamukela, bathi, ekupheleni kwenyanga imali engaphansi kuka-5% kunalokho abakutholile ifakwa kwi-akhawunti yabo, kunokungamukeli imali engashintshiwe amandla abo okuthenga, nokho, abonakala ekhishwa ukwehla kwamandla emali. "
  34. "Ngiyakuvuma lokho: Ngangikujabulela ukubuka abaphethe kahle bephatha kabi njengoba ukuguqulwa kwezokunakekelwa kwezempilo ekugcineni kwaba ngumthetho."
  35. "Ukungabi bikho kwenhlangano yezenhlalo kuyimbangela enkulu yokungalingani kanye nokulahleka kokuhamba kwabantu."
  36. "Inhloso akukhona ukujezisa abantu abacebile, kodwa wukwenza nje ukuthi bakhokhe ingxenye yabo ekuxhasweni kwezinqubomgomo zomphakathi ezidingwa yibo bonke abantu."
  37. "Uma kungaphela ukuwa kusasa, amathuluzi okuvuselela umnotho azoba ntekenteke."
  38. "I-United States iyaqhubeka nokuba yindawo enelungelo ngamaphesenti amahlanu acebile… Umphakathi ovulekile. Siphatha abaphathi bethu kahle kakhulu. "
  39. "Yize amandla okuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke athinta wonke amazwe athuthukile ngendlela efanayo, ukwabiwa kwemali engenayo kwehlukile kuye ngezwe."
  40. "Ngokusobala ingxenye ebalulekile yezakhamizi ikholelwa eqinisweni eliphakeme lezombusazwe noma lezenkolo futhi bacabanga ukuthi akunandaba ukuqamba amanga uma ukhonza lelo qiniso eliphakeme."
  41. "Ngicabanga ukuthi ukubeka phambili ukunakekelwa kwezempilo emhlabeni wonke, nokuyinto engenziwa, kuyinto eseqhulwini futhi ingamelela igxathu elikhulu phambili."
  42. "Uma abantu beyiziphukuphuku zepolitiki kungenxa yokuthi kunabantu abathanda kakhulu ukubagcina benjalo."
  43. "Abukho ubufakazi besayensi bokuthi ukukhuphula umholo omncane, kuze kufike kumkhawulo othile, kubangela ukungasebenzi okwengeziwe."
  44. «Kukhona isiqephu ku- I-Twilight Zone lapho ososayensi benza inkohliso yokuhlasela kwabokufika ukufeza ukuthula komhlaba. Kulokhu, kulokhu asisidingi, esikudingayo ukuthola ukugqugquzelwa kwezezimali. "
  45. "Ukukhiqiza akuyona yonke into, kepha ngokuhamba kwesikhathi cishe konke."
  46. «Ukuvela kwesikhashana kokungazi, isikhathi lapho ukuphikelela kwethu ekubhekeni ezinhlangothini ezithile kusenza singakwazi ukubona okulungile ngaphansi kwamakhala ethu, kungaba yintengo yenqubekela phambili, ingxenye engenakugwemeka yalokho okwenzekayo lapho sizama ukuqonda ubunzima, bomhlaba. "
  47. "Iqiniso alikaze lifeze lokho iphupho laseMelika ebelikulindele."
  48. “Kunenkohlakalo eningi; kukhona osopolitiki abavumela ukuthengwa, kungaba yilabo abafaka isandla emkhankasweni wabo noma ngokufumbathisa kwabo. "
  49. "Uma ucelwa ukuthi uthathe umholo, kunzima kakhulu ukwazi ukuthi umphathi wakho ukuxhaphaza yini."
  50. “Iqiniso ngukuthi zonke izibonelo eziphumelelayo zokuthuthuka kwezomnotho ngekhulu leminyaka elidlule, zonke izimo zesizwe esihluphekayo ezafinyelela ezingeni eliphansi noma eliphansi lokuphila, noma okungenani okungcono, zatholwa ngokuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke, okusho ukuthi, ngomkhiqizo ezimakethe zomhlaba, kunokuzama ukwaneliseka. "
  51. "Nginabangane, ososayensi bezepolitiki, ososayensi bezenhlalo, ababelana ngentshisekelo okungenani ezinhlotsheni ezithile zezindaba eziqanjiwe zesayensi."
  52. "Asithembeki kubantu uma sinika umbono wokuthi ukuncishiswa kwentela kuyakhokha futhi bazikhokhele bona."
  53. "Ikhono lezwe lokuthuthukisa izinga lalo lokuphila ngokuhamba kwesikhathi lincike ngokuphelele ekhonweni lalo lokukhuphula umkhiqizo walo ngomsebenzi ngamunye."
  54. “Ukulwisana nokwehla kwamandla omnotho kuyadingeka ukuthi iFed iphendule ngamandla; Imali esetshenziswa emndenini kumele inyuswe ukuze kunxeshezelwe ukutshalwa kwezimali kwebhizinisi okutheni. "
  55. "Ososayensi besimo sezulu basheshe babone ukuthi ucwaningo lwabo aluzibi nje kuphela kepha luyashushiswa."
  56. "Okungcono kakhulu ongakusho mayelana nenqubomgomo yezomnotho kulokhu kudangala ukuthi, ikakhulukazi, sikugweme ukuphindwa okuphelele kweNcithakalo Enkulu."
  57. "Ezimweni eziningi, mhlawumbe cishe yonke, inkohlakalo ifiphele kakhulu futhi kunzima kakhulu ukuyibona."
  58. "Noma umkhawulo wesikweletu uphakanyiswa ngokwanele ukuvimbela ukuthi kungakhokhwa ngokushesha, noma ngabe ukuvalwa kohulumeni kuphelile ngandlela thile, kuzomiswa okwesikhashana."
  59. "Ngikholelwa emphakathini ongalingani, osekelwa yizikhungo ezikhawulela kakhulu ingcebo nobumpofu."
  60. "Ngaphezu kwakho konke, kumele siyeke ukwenza sengathi sinezingxoxo eziqotho neziqotho."
  61. "Ngabe sizoba namandla okwenza izinguquko ezinqala ohlelweni lwezezimali?" Uma kungenjalo, inkinga yamanje ngeke ibe yinto ethile, kodwa iphethini ezolandelwa yimicimbi yesikhathi esizayo. "
  62. "Abezombusazwe baklonyeliswa ngokuba nezikhundla ezithile, futhi lokhu kubenza bazivikele ngokuqinile, baze bazikholise nokuthi empeleni abazithenganga."
  63. «Ngiyakholelwa entandweni yeningi, inkululeko yomphakathi kanye nokubusa komthetho. Lokho kungenza ngikhululeke futhi ngiyaziqhenya ngakho. "
  64. Kepha isibonelo saseCalifornia siyaqhubeka nokungiphazamisa. Ngubani owayengacabanga ukuthi izwe elikhulu kunawo wonke e-United States, izwe elinomnotho omkhulu kunamazwe amaningi kodwa amazwe ambalwa, kalula nje lingaba yi-republic yobhanana? "
  65. "Ngaphandle, kunzima ukubona umehluko phakathi kwalokhu 'abakukholelwa ngempela' nalokho abakhokhelwa ukukukholelwa."
  66. "Uma umnotho usucindezeleke kakhulu, amakhaya ikakhulukazi amabhizinisi angahle angazimiseli ukukhuphula imali noma ngabe banemali engakanani, bangavele bengeze noma yikuphi ukwanda kwemali ebhodini labo labaqondisi."
  67. "Ipolitiki iyona enquma ukuthi ngubani onamandla, hhayi ukuthi ngubani oneqiniso."
  68. "Umqondo wokuthi ukwethembeka ekubhekaneni neqiniso kuyisimo esihle kubonakala sengathi sekunyamalale empilweni yomphakathi."
  69. "Izindaba zabantu abaphuma enhluphekweni bese beceba azivamile kakhulu."
  70. "Okuwukuphela kwendlela yokwenza umqondo ngokwenzekile ukubona ukuthi ivoti liyindlela yokuchaza ezombusazwe."
  71. "Imvelaphi yokuhlupheka kwethu incane kakhulu ngokulandelana kwendawo yonke, futhi ingalungiswa ngokushesha okukhulu futhi kalula uma bekukhona abantu abanele abasezikhundleni abakuqondayo okungokoqobo."
  72. "Akekho othembekile ngokuphelele, kodwa ulwandle olucacile lwamanga esihlupheka ngalo manje lusha."
  73. "Isimo esinjalo, lapho inqubomgomo yezimali ingasasebenzi, sesidume ngokuthi isicupho semali."
  74. "Abangaqinisekisiwe namuhla ngabantu abasha noma imindeni esencane."
  75. «Ubuchwepheshe ngumngane wethu. Sinomnotho ophansi ongakhipha imfucuza ngamanani aphansi kakhulu. "
  76. "Yeka ukuthi kuqinisekisa kanjani-ke ukutshelwa ukuthi yonke into ayisebenzi, ukuthi konke odinga ukukwazi nje yimibono embalwa elula!"
  77. "Sonke sisengozini yezinkolelo ezilungele thina."
  78. "Ngakho-ke izimo zepolitiki kuzwelonke zidlange kakhulu ekusetshenzisweni komhlaba."
  79. "Abasibo abantu, kepha yimibono evikelwa ngamandla ngabathile bezombusazwe kanye nabaphawuli bezindaba, imvamisa beyizolo, futhi benesici esisodwa esifana: abanasisekelo ngokuphelele."
  80. "Awukho umqondo wokuthi kunento eyodwa kuphela okuthiwa ubungxiwankulu."

Paul Robin Krugman uyaba ubani?

Manje njengoba sesazi imishwana edumile kaPaul Krugman, ake sixoxe kancane nge-biography yakhe. Imayelana nosomnotho waseMelika owazalwa ngo-1953 e-Albany. Uthole i-BA ye-Economics evela eYale University ne-Ph.D. Kwezomnotho evela eMIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Mayelana nempilo yakhe yokusebenza, uKrugman wayesebenza njengothisha emanyuvesi amaningana, phakathi kwawo okuyiPrinceton University. Kodwa-ke, lesi sazi somnotho esidumile kugqame kakhulu ngokunqoba iNobel Prize in Economics ngo-2008. Le trajectory yenza imishwana kaPaul Krugman ibe ngumthombo omuhle wokukhuthaza nokufunda.

Uyini umbono kaPaul Krugman?

UPaul Krugman wasungula "inkolelo entsha yezohwebo"

Akusikho nje ukuthi imishwana kaPaul Krugman idumile, kepha futhi nombono wakhe wezohwebo. Ngokwesiko, uHeckscher no-Ohlin babekhuthaza ukuhweba phakathi kwezimboni ezahlukahlukene, kuyilapho uKrugman ephakamisa umbono ophathelene nokuhwebelana phakathi kwemboni. Lokho kusho, ngokusho kwalo somnotho ithengiswa umhlaba wonke phakathi kwamazwe isimo sawo sezomnotho esifana futhi nohlobo olufanayo lwemikhiqizo.

Ekuqaleni kwakucatshangwa ukuthi ukuhweba kuncike kakhulu endleleni izinto ezahlukahlukene zokukhiqiza ezabiwa ngayo ezweni ngalinye, okungukuthi: ezabasebenzi, umhlaba kanye nenhlokodolobha. Ngale ndlela kwaqondakala ukuthi ukuhwebelana kwamazwe omhlaba kwakuyizingxoxo phakathi kwamazwe aseningizimu nasenyakatho. Ngalesi sizathu, wonke umuntu uzuza njengoba amazwe egxile kuleyo mikhiqizo asebenza kahle ekukhiqizweni kwawo.

I-athikili ehlobene:
Izilinganiso zikaMilton Friedman

Kodwa-ke, uPaul Krugman wenza izifundo ezimbalwa ezikhombisa ukuthi ukuhweba okukhona kwamazwe omhlaba kwenziwa ngemikhiqizo yohlobo olufanayo. Yini enye, ukushintshana kwenzeka kuphela emazweni asenyakatho. Kusukela kulo mzuzu kwavela lokho okubizwa ngokuthi "inkolelo entsha yezohwebo" eyenziwe nguPaul Krugman. Ngokusho kwakhe, labo abahlomula ngempela ngokuhweba kwamazwe omnotho anezimboni eziningi. Ngakho-ke, lesi sazi sezomnotho siyawenqaba umbono wendabuko wokuthi ukuhwebelana kwamazwe omhlaba kukhulisa inhlalakahle jikelele.

Njengoba singaboni hhayi kuphela ngemishwana kaPaul Krugman, kodwa futhi nangethiyori yakhe, ungumuntu ogxeka kakhulu nomphakathi futhi onengqondo ekhazimulayo. Ngiyethemba ukuthi le ndatshana ibilusizo futhi yakhuthaza kuwe.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

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  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
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  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.