Humusha futhi uqonde ijika leLaffer

Ijika le-Laffer

Ijika leLaffer limelela ngokusobala ubudlelwano phakathi kwemali engenayo yentela namanani wenzalo yentela. Inhloso yejika ukukhombisa ukuthi imali yentela iguquka kanjani lapho amazinga wenzalo eguquka. Umakhi walelijika ngusomnotho waseMelika u-Arthur Laffer, ophikisa ngokuthi ukwanda kwezinga lentela akuhumushi ukwanda kweqoqo, ngoba isisekelo sentela siyawa.

U-Laffer uthi okwamanje lapho isilinganiso sentela sibekwa ku-zero, imali engenayo yomgcinimafa ayikho ngoba empeleni akukho ntela esetshenziswayo. Ngokufanayo, uma isilinganiso sentela singu-100%, ayikho imali engenayo yentela, ngoba ayikho inkampani noma umuntu ongavuma ukukhiqiza okuhle imali engenayo ezosetshenziselwa ngokugcwele ukukhokha intela.

Ngokusho kukaLaffer, uma kumazinga aphezulu entela, ukuqoqwa kwentela kumane nje kungu-zero, umphumela uba khona kwezinga eliphakathi phakathi kwalokhu kweqisa okuvumela ukuqoqwa okuphezulu okungenzeka kube khona. Uma kubhekwa iqiniso lokuthi ukwehla kwamandla emali kunoma imuphi umnotho kwehlisa inani lemali, ukwehla kwamandla emali kungabonakala njengentela ethathwa njengokulahlekelwa kwenani njengomphumela walesi simo futhi okuhlala kubhekwana nakho kubanikazi bezilinganiso zeqiniso zemali imali, amabhondi angenayo inkomba nezinsimbi zezezimali.

Lokhu empeleni kungani Ijika leLaffer lingasetshenziselwa ukuhlaziya imiphumela yokwehluka kwamandla emali kunoma imuphi umnotho.

Ijika leLaffer nezintela

Singasho lapho ukuthi i- Ijika le-Laffer ukumelwa okuyisithombe lapho ungabona khona ukuthi umnotho wezwe uthinteka kanjani ngokuthi imali engenayo kahulumeni incike kuphela kuzintela ezitholwayo. Ijika lizama nokuchaza ukuthi ukwanda kwentela akusho ukuthi kuhumushela ekutholeni imali ethe xaxa.

Isiphetho sejika le-Laffer

Ngenxa yalokho, ijika leLaffer kukhombisa ukuthi lapho uhulumeni enyusa ukuqoqwa kwakhe kwentela ngaphezu kwephuzu elithile, Ungathola imali encane kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nokwehlisa intela yakho kuzimpahla nezinsizakalo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lapho uhulumeni enyusa intela yakhe ngokweqile, izindleko ezibangelwa ukwengeza lesi silinganiso ezindlekweni nasemkhawulweni wenzuzo yanoma yikuphi okuhle noma isevisi, kungahle kungabi lula ukunikeza okuhle noma isevisi kunoma ngubani okunikezayo noma ukukuthola noma ngubani omangalelayo.

Ngamanye amagama, ukuthi umkhiqizi noma umthengi unquma ukuthi akanantshisekelo noma ngqo, ukuthi ngeke bakwazi ukunikela noma ukuthenga lokho okuhle noma isevisi. Ngakho-ke, ukuthengiswa kwaleyo ntengo noma isevisi kungadilika futhi ngenxa yalokho, inani lentela eliqoqiwe nalo lizowa.

Ukuqonda ijika leLaffer

Ejika leLaffer, ku- i-eksisi ye-abscissa amanani entela akhona angabekwa enzuzweni yomkhiqizo okhonjwe nge-ti , ezikalwa ngamaphesenti ukusuka ku-0% kuya ku-100% futhi lapho i-t0 ilingana no-0%, kuyilapho i-tmax ilingana no-100%. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-axis yamakhompyutha iyona esetshenziselwa ukumela imali engenayo kahulumeni emalini futhi ekhonjwe nguWe.

El Igrafu yejika leLaffer Kungafundeka ngale ndlela: lapho inani lentela entweni enhle noma isevisi liyi-t0, uhulumeni wabe engenzi nzuzo ngokuqoqa intela, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwentela akukho. Njengoba uhulumeni enyusa intela ngokwengeziwe, okuhle noma isevisi yenza inzuzo eningi futhi ngenxa yalokho ukuqoqwa kuyenyuka.

Incazelo yejika leLaffer

Noma kunjalo, ukwanda kwemali etholwa nguhulumeni ngokuvamile kwenzeka kuze kufike ku-t *, okuthi kulokhu kuhlonzwe njengendawo efanelekile yokuqoqa. Ngamanye amagama, lokhu kungaba ileveli yesilinganiso sentela esivumela uhulumeni ukuthi athole imali eningi ngokuqoqwa kwentela.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kusukela ku-t *, ukwanda kwentela kokuhle noma insizakalo, Kwenza abakhiqizi nabathengi bangabi nentshisekelo ekukhiqizeni nasekuthengeni lokho okuhle noma isevisi, ngamunye ngenxa yezizathu zakhe. Endabeni yabakhiqizi, ngoba ngokuyisisekelo isikhathi ngasinye bazohola kancane, ngenkathi kubathengi, ngoba bavame ukubhekana nokwenyuka okwengeziwe kunani lokugcina lokuthenga.

Uma ucabanga ukuthi i- ukuqoqwa kwentela okuhambelana ne-t0 ne-tmax, ayikho, umphumela uba ukuthi kufanele kube nesilinganiso sentela esiphakathi phakathi kwalezi zinto ezeqisayo, ezimele ngokomqondo inani lemali eliqoqiwe. Konke lokhu kususelwa kuTheolm kaRolle, lapho kuphikiswa khona ukuthi uma imali engenayo yomgcinimafa ingumsebenzi oqhubekayo wezinga lentela, ngakho-ke okungenani kunenani eliphakeme ngesikhathi esiphakathi nesikhathi.

Un umphumela ongaba khona wejika ngukuthi uma uhulumeni enyusa ingcindezi yentela ngaphezu kwephesenti elithile t *, ukwanda kwentela kuzoba nenkinga, ngoba ukutholakala noma amanani enzuzo etholwayo ancipha ngokuya ephansi.

Ngamanye amagama, baqala ukuthola iqoqo eliphansi ngenxa yokuthi umkhiqizi osemaceleni akasekho, abanye abakwenzayo basebenza emakethe emnyama, kuyilapho abanye bekhetha ukungayitholi inzuzo ngoba uhulumeni ungaphezulu kakhulu kwalokhu empeleni thola intela. Ngenxa yalokhu, ijika leLaffer lisikisela ukuthi ukwehliswa kwentela kuzokhuphula imali kuphela uma amanani entela amanje agcinwa ngakwesokudla kwephuzu eliphakeme lejika.

Ijika leLaffer limelela umbono wokuthi ushintsho kumanani entela lukhiqiza imiphumela emibili ehlobene kakhulu nemali engenayo yentela: umphumela wezomnotho nomphumela wezibalo. Endabeni yomphumela wezomnotho, umthelela omuhle amanani entela anawo kwezabasebenzi, umkhiqizo nasekuqasheni uyabonwa, kuyilapho amanani entela aphezulu eveza umphumela wezomnotho ohlukile ngokujezisa ukubamba iqhaza emisebenzini ngokwenyuka kwentela.

Ngokwengxenye yayo, umphumela wezibalo uhlobene neqiniso lokuthi uma inani lentela liphansi, imali engenayo yentela iyancishiswa ngenxa yenani lokuqoqwa kwentela, kanti okuphambene kwenzeka uma inani lentela lenyuswa, kusukela iqoqo ngentela kulingana nenani lentela elandiswa yiqoqo elitholakala ngentela.

Ngenxa yalokho nangokuya ngomphumela wezomnotho, nge Izinga lentela elingu-100%, uhulumeni ngombono ubengeke athole mali engenayo ngoba abakhokhi bentela bazoshintsha indlela yabo yokuziphatha ngenxa yentela ephezulu. Ngokuyisisekelo babengeke babe nogqozi lokusebenza noma kubona babeyokhetha enye indlela yokugwema ukukhokha intela, kufaka phakathi ukungena emakethe emnyama noma ukumane basebenzise umnotho wokuhwebelana.

Ngabe intela yamanani emali ihlobene kanjani nejika leLaffer?

Ijika leLaffer Economia

cunt imvamisa yokwehla kwamandla emali ibonwa njengentela ngoba yehlisa inani lemali, ngakho-ke, lapho kunexabiso lokwehla kwamandla emali, uma abenzeli befuna ukugcina izilinganiso zabo zangempela zingaguquguquki, khona-ke kufanele benyuse imali yabo yokuzisholo. Kungakho noma uLaffer aklama ijika ukumela intela yemali engenayo e-United States, empeleni ingasetshenziswa kumodeli wentela yamanani emali.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi i-seigniorage yimali engenayo noma usizo olutholwa ohulumeni ngokuba nesibopho sokwenza imali kuphela, intela yokwehla kwamandla emali imele ukulahleka kwemali yabo bonke labo abathola inzuzo yabo ngenxa yokwehla kwamandla emali. Uma unomnotho ongakhuli, kokubili ukwehla kwamandla emali nokugcinwa kwe-seigniorage kuyahlangana ngoba ukwehla kwamandla emali kuyefana nokukhula kwenani lemali.

Kodwa-ke, lapho unomnotho okhulayo, ukugcinwa kwe-seigniorage kanye ne-inflation kuyahluka ngoba isidingo semali singakhuphuka ngenxa yemali eyengeziwe. Ngaphandle kwalokho, kungenzeka nokuthi iBhange Elikhulu lisungule okufunwa kakhulu njengokuhlinzeka okuphezulu kakhulu ngaphandle kokukhuphuka kwemali, kepha ukuqoqa inzuzo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ngisho nangokwehla kwamandla emali okungu-zero, kusenokwenzeka ukuqoqa ukugcinwa kwemali njengomphumela wokwenyuka kwesidingo semali.

Ubudlelwano phakathi kwamanani emali nokugcinwa kwe-seigniorage kungabonakala ejikeni leLafferUma ucabanga ukuthi njengoba ukunyuka kwamandla emali kukhuphuka, akusho ukuthi ukuqoqwa kwemali nakho kuzokwenyuka njengoba imali etholakele incane. Lapho ukwehla kwamandla emali kungu-zero, i-seigniorage nayo ayiyi-zero. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uma isidingo semali sehla ngesilinganiso esisheshayo uma kuqhathaniswa ne-inflation, i-seigniorage kulindeleke ukuthi yehle kancane njengoba ukwehla kwamandla emali kukhuphuka unomphela. Lokhu kwenzeka ngoba abenzeli baqala ukuguqula izilinganiso zabo zangempela zibe yizimpahla ezinamanani amancane, kepha kube nembuyiselo enhle yokuqokwa.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.