Ziziphi ii-indices zesitokhwe

Ziziphi ii-indices zesitokhwe

Ngokuqinisekileyo uqhelene ne-Ibex, i-Nasdaq ... Into ongeke ukwazi ukuba yintoni kanye le migaqo ibhekisela kuyo. Ewe, ezi zizikhombisi zesitokhwe, ngaba uyazi ukuba ziphi?

Okulandelayo siza cacisa ukuba zeziphi izalathisi zesitokhwe, yeyiphi imisebenzi ezinayo, kunye neentlobo ekhoyo namhlanje. Ukuba unomdla kulo mbandela, musa ukuthandabuza ukuqhubeka uwufunda.

Ziziphi ii-indices zesitokhwe

Izalathisi zesitokhwe

Izalathisi zempahla, ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-stocks index, Ngaba ngokwenene izikhombisi ezinceda ukwazi ukuba yeyiphi na ixabiso lee-asethi ezidwelisiweyo, okoko bedibana nothotho lweempawu.

Ngamanye amagama, sithetha ngexabiso lereferensi elinikezela ngeseti yamaxabiso acatshulwe kwimarike yemasheya kuloo nto ithile, ngendlela yokuba unokubona ukuba itshintshe njani kwixabiso ngokuhamba kwexesha ngokujonga nje okukodwa. .

Eli xabiso lamanani lisetyenziswe ngaphezu kwayo yonke into ukuze umntu afumane ingcamango yemeko yenkampani ayihlalutyayo, ngendlela yokuba abone ukuba lixesha elifanelekileyo, okanye ngokuchaseneyo, ukuba kungcono ukuba ungatyali imali kuyo.

Phakathi kwezalathisi ezininzi zesitokhwe ezikhoyo namhlanje, oyena mdala nguMyinge wezoThutho weDow Jones, isalathiso esadalwa ngoJulayi 3, 1884 nguCharles Dow (kungoko igama lakhe), intatheli kwaye ngokuchanekileyo umseki weWall Street Journal. Okwangoku, yenziwe ziinkampani zezothutho ezili-11 apho ezisi-9 zingoololiwe.

Imisebenzi ye-stock indices

Imisebenzi ye-stock indices

Ngoku uyazi ukuba zeziphi ii-indices zesitokhwe, kunokwenzeka ukuba unombono wokuba zithini na iinjongo. Kodwa ukwenza icace ngakumbi, le misebenzi yahlulwe ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Banceda ukulinganisa ukusebenza. Oko kukuthi, ngokukwazi ukubona ukuhluka kwexabiso inkampani enayo, unokwazi ukuba kuyindlela efanelekileyo yokusebenza nayo okanye hayi. Oku kuvumela abaphathi ukuba benze umsebenzi ongcono.
  • Ivumela ukwazi ukuba kukho inzuzo okanye umngcipheko kwimarike. Ke ngoko, ngokubona utshintsho lwamaxabiso ahlukeneyo unokwazi ukuba lixesha elifanelekileyo lokusebenzisana nalo okanye hayi.
  • Kwezinye iimeko, i-stock indices baba sisiseko seemveliso zotyalo-mali.
  • Ivumela ukulinganisa i-asethi yemali. Ngokucacileyo ayiso-100% isalathisi esithembekileyo, phantse akukho nanye, kodwa unokwenza i-beta (oko kukuthi, uvavanyo) ukufumana loo maxabiso ahlukeneyo ukwenza ezona zigqibo zifanelekileyo.

Iindidi zezalathisi zesitokhwe

Ukuba uyakhumbula isiqalo, uya kuyazi loo nto Akukho salathiso esinye kuphela, kodwa ezininzi zazo. Iingcaphephe zingazilinganisa ngeendlela ezininzi ezahlukeneyo, nangona ezona zixhaphakileyo ziqhelekile 3. Ezi zezi:

Ngokwemvelaphi yayo

Ngokukodwa, zisekwe apho ezi indices zivela khona okanye apho zisebenza khona. Loluphi ulwahlulo olufunyenweyo?

  • Abemi belizwe. Xa ii-asethi abasebenza nazo zezelizwe elinye kuphela.
  • Amazwe ngamazwe. Xa ii-asethi zikumazwe amaninzi angaphandle. Akukhathaliseki nokuba lilizwe elinye kwaye abanye bakwilizwe elinye, kuba elo beliya kuba lilizwe lamazwe ngamazwe.
  • Ehlabathini lonke. Oku kwahlukile kuleyo yangaphambili kuba ii-asethi azigxininisi kumazwe ambalwa angaphandle kodwa zisehlabathini lonke.

Ngokutsho kwenkampani

Olwesibini ulwahlulo olusetyenziswa kakhulu luhlobo lwenkampani eyiyo. Kule meko, sithetha malunga:

  • Izalathisi zecandelo. Xa iinkampani ezenza ii-asethi zigxile kwicandelo elithile.
  • Ngaphakathi kwamacandelo. Ngokungafaniyo nabanye, apha awuzukuba necandelo elinye kodwa bekuya kubakho uninzi lwazo.

Ngokohlobo lwee-asethi

Okokugqibela, olokugqibela lolona hlelo luqhelekileyo lunxulumene nee-asethi esisebenza ngazo, sihlela i-indices ngo:

  • Yomvuzo oguquguqukayo. Xa izinto zexabiso zizitokhwe.
  • Irenti esisigxina. Apho iibhondi kunye nezibophelelo zingena khona. Kule meko yesibini baya kuba naluphi na uhlobo.
  • Iimpahla ezingekasilwa. Ngokukodwa, sithetha ngesilivere, ioli, igolide ...

Zeziphi iimpawu zesitokhwe ezikhoyo emhlabeni

Zeziphi iimpawu zesitokhwe ezikhoyo emhlabeni

Ukuthetha malunga nesalathiso ngasinye sesitokhwe kunokuba yindinisa kwaye kudinwe. Nangona kunjalo, kuyinyaniso ukuba kukho ezinye zazo ezisetyenziswa kakhulu (okanye zaziwa ngakumbi).

Sibhekisa ku Dow Jones (eUnited States); I-Nasdaq (kwakhona e-US); Eurostoxx50 (eYurophu); uNikkei (eJapan); okanye Ibex35 (eSpain, kwaye eyona iphambili ibandakanya iinkampani ezingama-35 ezinemali ephezulu ngokufanelekileyo kunye nemali yokuhlawula amatyala).

Ngoku, ezi sizikhankanyileyo ayizizo zodwa ezikhoyo. Enyanisweni, kuxhomekeke kwilizwe (okanye ilizwekazi) sinokufumana abameli abangaphezu kwesinye. Umzekelo:

Kwimeko EUnited StatesUkongeza kwi-Dow Jones kunye ne-Nasdaq, enye yezona zinto ziyaziwa kakhulu kwaye zisetyenziswa kakhulu yi-S & P 500, leyo, njengoko umzobo ubonisa, yenziwe ngeenkampani ze-500 kwi-New York Stock Exchange kunye ne-Nasdaq, phakathi kwezona zinkulu kwilizwe.

Ukuba siya EuropeKukho izalathisi zestokhwe ezintathu ekufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo. Ngaba:

  • I-Dax 30, yemvelaphi yaseJamani kwaye ebandakanya iinkampani ze-30, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kwi-Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
  • I-FTSE 100, evela eLondon, kunye neenkampani ezili-100 ezibalulekileyo. NjengoDow Jones, le ngxelo yesitokhwe yenziwe liphephandaba, iphephandaba le-Financial Times.
  • I-CAC 40, kwakhona kunye neenkampani ze-40, kuphela kwi-stock market yaseFransi.

Ukubuyela kwindawo ye EMelika, Kodwa kule meko, emazantsi, izalathisi eziphambili zentengiso yemasheya, ezingathathelwa ngqalelo (ubuncinci eSpain), zezi:

  • I-Bovespa, yemvelaphi yaseBrazil kwaye yenziwe ngeenkampani ze-50 kwi-Sao Paulo Stock Exchange.
  • IPC, iMexico, kwaye ilawulwa nguCarlos Slim.
  • I-IBC Caracas, eyona index iphambili eVenezuela kwaye yenziwe ziinkampani ezili-16.
  • IGBVL, evela ePeru.
  • Merval, waseArgentina apho ufumana ezona nkampani zibalulekileyo kwiBuenos Aires Stock Exchange.
  • IPSA, evela eChile.
  • MSCI Latin America. Yenye yezalathi zemarike yemasheya kuba ineenkampani ezivela eBrazil, ePeru, eMexico, eChile naseColombia

Kwinqanaba laseAsiaUkongeza kwi-Nikkei, kwakhona okuphawulekayo yi-SSE Composite Index, eyona nto ibalulekileyo e-China; I-KOSPI, ukusuka kwicala laseMzantsi Korea; BSE Sensex, evela eIndiya; o I-Hang Seng Index, evela eHong Kong.

Ngaba ngoku ucace ngakumbi malunga nokuba zeziphi izalathi zesitokhwe?


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