Yintoni indawo yokulinda?

Indawo yokulinda

Kwilizwe lezoqoqosho kukho amagama amaninzi apho kuthi abo bangadibaniyo rhoqo nolu hlobo lwendalo abanokuthi bangayazi, nangona kunjalo, kukho imigaqo ethile ekufuneka sonke siyazi ukuze siqonde ngcono ukuba inkqubo yangoku isebenza njani. Elinye lala magama ngu Lobby, igama elinokusikhumbuza ulwimi lwesiNgesi, nangona kunjalo, ligama elibaluleke kakhulu kwicandelo lezoqoqosho kunye nezopolitiko, masibone ukuba kuthetha ntoni oku.

Eyona nto inokwenzeka, ukumamela Lobby igama Makhe sicinge ngento yesiSpanish eyaziwa njengegumbi lokulinda okanye igumbi lokulinda. Nangona kunjalo, ngentsingiselo enzulu, i-lobby yaziwa njengeqela lokuphembelela okanye iqela loxinzelelo; oku kuthetha ukuba a Lobby liqela labantu ezidibanayo ukuze zikwazi ukwenza uxinzelelo oluthile olunenjongo yokuhambisa izigqibo zeziko lezopolitiko okanye lezemali, ngohlobo lokuba izigqibo zithi zilungile kwiqela labantu abahlanganisiweyo.

Kwaye eli kota kunye nokuziqhelanisa ayisiyonto ivelileyo kule minyaka idlulileyo, masibone ukuba kutheni kwaye kutheni ivele.

Imvelaphi yeeLobbies

Ngoku ka Iirekhodi zembali esinokufikelela kuyo namhlanje, eli gama laqala ukusetyenziswa kwiminyaka yokugqibela yenkulungwane ye-100, into ethetha ukuba, ngaphezulu kweminyaka eli-XNUMX, eli gama libeyinxalenye yesigama sethu, kwaye lichaphazele izigqibo ezininzi ezithathwe oorhulumente abakhoyo.

Indawo yokulinda

Ukuze ukwazi ukudibana ukugcwalisa ibali Kweli xesha kubalulekile ukukhankanya ukuba sele kungunyaka we-1830 igama elithi Lobby sele lichonge indawo ehambelana neepaseji zendlela Indlu yeeManyano; uthe igumbi yindawo ebekiweyo yokukwazi ukuxoxa ngezihloko ezihambelana nepalamente. Enye yezinto ezichasayo ze-lobbies kukuba uGeneral Grant, ovela eMelika, wazinza kwigumbi elisezantsi elisehotele, oku ngenxa yomlilo ochaphazele iNdlu yeWhite House. Kwaye emva kokuba efakwe kuloo ndawo indawo yokungenisa igcwele ngento esele siyazi njengabaphembeleli.

Injongo yeeklabhu

Ngenxa yoko sikufundileyo malunga nokugunyazisa, kunokwenzeka ukuba sikholelwe ukuba iqela elihlangana ukuze likwazi ukufaka uxinzelelo phambi kwesigqibo sepolitiki okanye kwezoqoqosho, sinokucinga ukuba sisiganeko esingekho mthethweni, nangona kunjalo, sichasene, ngenxa yokuba lo msebenzi uqhelekile, isigqibo sithathiwe ukumisela i-lobbies. Kwaye kuthathelwa ingqalelo oko injongo yokulinda Kukuba onke amaqela anomdla afumana isiphumo esithile ngenxa yesigqibo samagosa aseburhulumenteni anokuthi aveze izimvo zawo, iimfuno, okanye ukungavumelani okunxulumene neso sigqibo.

Kwaye nangona lo mmiselo ubukhona iminyaka emininzi, kule minyaka idlulileyo kuye kwakho inkqubela phambili ngokubhekisele umgaqo wee-lobbies, ukwenza elubala kunye nokubekwa emgangathweni kwazo kwenziwe ngendlela efanelekileyo ngakumbi ngendlela apho onke amaqela anomdla anokwanelisa iimfuno zawo kunye neenkxalabo ngokusebenzisa le nkqubo.

Kuba i-United States yenye yeendawo zokuqala apho le nto iqala khona ukulawulwa ngumthetho, singafumana iimbekiselo ezininzi zembali malunga nezi ziganeko zelo lizwe; Umzekelo, sinebinzana likaJohn F. Kennedy, apho umongameli waseMelika abonisa ukuba uncedo lwee-lobbies kukuba abo bayinxalenye yabo banokuchaza ingxaki kuye ngemizuzu eli-10, ngelixa abacebisi bakhe bengathatha iintsuku ezintathu.

Ke kanye xa Oorhulumente bakuqonda ukubaluleka kwezi ndibanoKuxa isigqibo sokumiselwa kwabo sathathwa, kuba ukuze kusetyenziswe umgaqo-nkqubo ngendlela efanelekileyo ngakumbi kufanelekile ukumamela abo banomdla koku okanye kweso sigqibo kufuneka sithathwe, ukongeza oku kuvumela isikhokelo abantu ababandakanyekayo ukuhlala bechaphazeleka ngokulungileyo, kuba oko kukuphela kwezopolitiko.

Apha kwi-European Union kukho umgaqo wee-lobby, umgaqo obonisiweyo kwirejista kawonkewonke, eyamiselwa ngo-2008, ngenyanga kaJuni. Esona sizathu siphambili sesigqibo sokwenza lo msitho senziwe kukuba bafuna ukwandisa ukubonakala kokusebenza kwe-lobbies kumazwe abandakanyekayo. Kwaye ngoku ekubeni sisazi ukuba zabakho njani kwaye zilawulwa ngoku, masiqwalasele indlela ezihlelwa ngayo ezi zikhundla, ukuze siqonde ngakumbi indima yabo kuphuhliso lomthetho wangoku.

Ukwahlulahlula i-lobby

Indawo yokulinda

Abaqeshi

Ezokuqala esiza kuthi sizikhankanye zezi Ukuphembelela umqeshi, Kwaye kukuba indima yayo kuphuhliso loluntu lwanamhlanje ibonakala ngokucacileyo. Kule minyaka bekusenziwa ngayo oku, imibutho yabasebenzi yenye yeqela elinobunzima obukhulu malunga nezigqibo eziza kuthathwa zokuchaza indlela yemithetho yezabasebenzi. Oku kuthetha ukuba bayichaphazele kakhulu indlela ekuthi ngayo kuqeshwe umthetho. Enye ye ezona ndawo zibalulekileyo zaziwa eYurophu yi-ERT, Eyaziwa njenge tafile yaseYurophu ejikelezayo yoosomashishini.

Nangona kuxhomekeke kwilizwe esibhekisa kulo, inyani kukuba oorhulumente babanike indima ebaluleke kakhulu kwezopolitiko, kwaye isizathu soku kukuba ubukhulu becala zezi zikolo abasebenzi, ke ngabo abawazi kakhulu umhlaba kwaye ikwangabo banenxalenye ebalulekileyo yoqoqosho.

Kuya kukhankanywa ukuba kumaxesha amaninzi amalungelo akhethekileyo anikwa abo bayinxalenye yezi zikhundla, xa kuthelekiswa nezinye amashishini azimeleyo, eyenza ukuba ngaphakathi kwale mibutho umnqweno ekudala ulindelwe kwiinkampani ezininzi kwizihlandlo ezininzi.

Imibutho yabasebenzi

Amanye amaqela oxinzelelo anefuthe elikhulu kuphuhliso lwezopolitiko lweenkampani zezi Amagunya omanyano. La maqela abenempembelelo ebonakalayo kungekuphela kule minyaka idlulileyo, kodwa ukusukela kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX, ubukho bawo bucacile xa kungenelelwa ngezigqibo zikarhulumente.

Esinye sezihloko eziphambili ezichukunyiswayo ngurhulumente wentlalontle okanye urhulumente wentlalontle, apho kukhankanywa imigaqo-nkqubo yelizwe emele ukufuna ezona nzuzo zibalaseleyo kubemi. Inyani yokuba ezi ndibano zingenelela kwezi ntlobo zemicimbi yezopolitiko ibalulekile kumazwe amaninzi ukuba aseke imigaqo yezomthetho ukuze akwazi Imiba yesiqinisekiso ezinje ngomvuzo omncinci, ixesha leholide, phakathi kwabanye abaninzi.

Okwangoku kukho ngaphakathi kolu luhlu, uninzi iimanyano kwihlabathi liphela, ezinokumela iqela elithile labasebenzi, umzekelo singakhankanya imibutho yabasebenzi yezemfundo, okanye imigodi, ioyile, imibutho yabasebenzi kwezolimo, phakathi kwabanye abaninzi.

Kwaye nangona kuyinyani ukuba awusoze uyifune amalungelo abasebenzi, kukho amanye amazwe apho ifuthe lemibutho yabasebenzi lincipha, singakhankanya iFrance, i-Itali neGreat Britain njengezinye zeendawo apho imibutho yabasebenzi ingabalulekanga kangako; Oku kufanelekile, ngokweengcali, kwinto yokuba kungoku nje kukho ukhuphiswano olukhulu phakathi kwemibutho eyahlukeneyo, into ethetha ukuba abasebenzi basasazekile kungekuphela kwiindawo zabo zokusebenza, kodwa abakwazi nokuvumelana ngayo kwiimfuno zabo ngokuqinisekisa ukuba impilo-ntle yabo.

Izazi ngendalo

Ayothusi into yokuba kule minyaka idlulileyo singene kwixesha apho kukho umbono ogqithisileyo wokukhathalela okusingqongileyo. Ngenxa yokuthandwa kwesi sihloko, imibutho emininzi kwilizwe jikelele yenzelwe ukubanakho ukuqinisekisa ukuba Intlalo-ntle yendalo yeplanethi.

Ezona mfuno ziphambili zoku uhlobo lwee-lobbies Baza kukhathalela ukuxhaphazwa kobutyebi bendalo obukhoyo kwiplanethi, bakhathalele ukuba izinto ezikhutshwayo ezenziwayo zingayenzakalisi indalo, kwaye zikhathalele nongcoliseko olwenzeka emhlabeni nasemanzini.

Amandla kunye nefuthe yale mibutho iyabonakala xa sithetha ngomthetho wokukhutshwa kwekhabhoni, kunye nemfuno yeenkqubo zendalo ekufuneka zisetyenzisiwe kwiinkampani ezivelisa, kubandakanya nomgangatho wombutho we-ISO ojolise kwindalo esingqongileyo, kunye nemicimbi engeyiyo kuphela inomdla wentlalontle ziyaxoxwa, kodwa nezopolitiko kunye nezoqoqosho.

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo yonke le mibutho idlale indima ebalulekileyo kuphuhliso lwembali yoluntu, kwaye ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo iyakuqhubeka ukuba nje xa kukho izinto ezifanayo.

 

 


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

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