Yintoni imvelaphi yamaxhalanga

Iimali zamaxhalanga zisemngciphekweni omkhulu

Namhlanje kukho iimali ezininzi kangangokuba zinokudideka kakhulu. Imali ehleliweyo yengeniso, imali yolingano, imali yemali, iimali ezixubeneyo, nkqu nemali! Kodwa kukho enye enokuba nomdla kakhulu ngenxa yegama layo: Ingxowa yamaxhalanga. Yintoni imvelaphi yamaxhalanga? Ingaba isebenza kanjani?

Ukuba ufuna ukwazi iimpendulo zale mibuzo, ndincoma ukuba uqhubeke ufunda. Siza kuchaza ukuba yintoni ingxowa-mali yamaxhalanga, isebenza njani kwaye yeyiphi eSpain. Ukongeza, siza kunika izimvo kwimowudi yakhe yokusebenza ngexesha lobunzima ngo-2008, ukuze ufumane umbono ongcono wendlela asebenza ngayo.

Kutheni ibizwa ngokuba yingxowa yamaxhalanga?

Iimali zamaxhalanga zithathwa njengezingekho mgaqweni

Ukuqonda igama lale mali, siza kuqala sichaze ukuba yintoni ingxowa-mali yamaxhalanga. Le yimibutho yezoqoqosho yotyalo-mali lwasimahla okanye i-capital capital efumana ezo nqabiseko zamatyala eenkampani ezinesiphene solvency, kodwa nakwii-States ezisemngciphekweni wokungabinamali. Koko kukuthi: Ngokusisiseko ziyimali eyinkunzi okanye imali yotyalo-mali enobungozi obuphezulu enjongo yayo ikukuthenga ukhuseleko kumatyala, nokuba kungokarhulumente nawabucala, kwiinkampani okanye kumazwe anengxaki ezinkulu kakhulu. Ngokuqhelekileyo ziphakathi kwama-20% nama-30% ngaphantsi kwexabiso lazo.

Igama lalo loqobo sisiNgesi, «ingxowa yexhalanga», elithetha intsingiselo «ingxowa yamaxhalanga». Iixhalanga zizirhubuluzi ezondla ikakhulu kwisidumbu. Ngaba uyakubona ukufana? Zombini iingxowa zamaxhalanga kunye nezi zilwanyana zisebenzisa ithuba lentsalela, kungoko zinelo gama. Ngapha koko, ezi mali zikwabizwa ngokuba zi 'holdouts'. Nangona kunjalo, eli gama lisetyenziselwa ukubhekisa kubanini-mali. Oku kunokuba kufunyenwe njengenxalenye yesicwangciso sotyalo mali kwaye ngokubanzi abavumi ukuthatha inxaxheba kulwakhiwo ngokutsha lwetyala. Endaweni yoko bakhetha ukuqala ityala ngenkundla.

Kuhlala kuqatshelwa ukuba ingxowa yamaxhoba bahlala benolwazi olubanzi kakhulu lweemarike abazimisele ukungena kuzo. Ukongeza, zihlala zenziwe ngamaqela amakhulu kunye neengcali, zombini amagqwetha kunye neengcali kwiinkqubo zohlengahlengiso lweshishini.

Isebenza njani ingxowa yamaxhalanga?

Kuyenzeka ukuba urhwebe ngemali yexhalanga

Ngoku siyazi ukuba yintoni ingxowa-mali yamaxhalanga, kodwa isebenza njani? Benza ntoni ngala matyala bawafumeneyo? Nje ukuba uthenge izihloko esizikhankanyileyo ngasentla, Ingxowa-mali yamaxhalanga yenza konke okusemandleni ukuqokelela ixabiso elipheleleyo lala matyala. Ngaphandle kwalokhu, badibanisa inzala kuyo yonke iminyaka abatyalayo. Xa besenza olu hlobo lokusebenza, abathatheli ngqalelo kuthatyathwa okanye ukulungiswa.

Iimali zamaxhalanga zineengcali ezinjongo zazo ikukufumana iimarike ezikwimeko yezoqoqosho embi kakhulu. Ezi ngcali zinamava amaninzi kwaye ziyazi ngokugqibeleleyo ukuba iinkqubo zohlengahlengiso lweenkampani zisebenza njani. Nje ukuba bakwazi ukuthenga iiasethi ngexabiso eliphantsi, bazama ukuzithengisa ngexeshana elifutshane okanye eliphakathi ngexabiso eliphezulu kakhulu kunokuba bebehlawulile ukuze bazifumane. Njengoko kunokulindelwa, izibonelelo abazifumanayo zikhulu kakhulu.

Kukho amanye amazwe athe agxeka olu hlobo lokusebenza kakhulu. Njengokuba imali yamaxhalanga ivelisa inzuzo ngokuhlawula amatyala amazwe okanye iinkampani ezikwimeko enzima kakhulu, kumda wokungabinamali, emva koko ziyithengise ngexabiso eliphezulu kakhulu kwelona libiza ixabiso eliphezulu, bakugqala njengokungekho semthethweni.

ISpeyin kunye neengxowa-mali

Ngo-2008 kwenzeka ingxaki ebaluleke kakhulu kwezoqoqosho. Kwakungelo xesha ke apho imali yamaxhalanga ibaluleke kakhulu eSpain. Ngoko, bathenga kakhulu iimali mboleko zobambiso ezahlukeneyo. Imodus operandi yabo ibisekwe ekuthengeni ityala ebhankini kwaye emva koko bacinezele onetyala ukuze abuyise lonke ityala abalifumeneyo. Ngenxa yoko, umntu onetyala, owayesele enetyala ebhankini kwaye mhlawumbi imeko yezoqoqosho imbi, akazange alithathe eli tyala. Ngelo xesha, iimali zamaxhalanga zaqhubeka nokugxeka kwaye ke ngaloo ndlela ziqala inkqubo yokuthintela.

Ingakumbi eSpain apho iingxowa-mali zamaxhalanga zijolise ekuthengeni ikakhulu imali ebambisa, iinkampani kunye namatyala ebhanki. Phakathi kwezona zaziwa kakhulu kwimimandla yaseSpain yiCerberus, iLone Star kunye neBlackstone. Kodwa ingakanani imali enokujongana nayo? Ewe, isixa semali abazihlanganisileyo sinokufikelela ngokulula kumakhulu ezigidi zeerandi.

Ukuba sijamelene nebango lengxowamali yamaxhalanga, into yokuqala ekufuneka siyenzile ukuqinisekisa ukuba ingoyena ubolekayo ngokwenyani. Ukuba kunjalo, singazama ukubonisana naye. Ngokubanzi, oku kulula kunokuthetha-thethana neebhanki ngokwazo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ndicacisile onke amathandabuzo akho malunga nengxowa-mali yamaxhalanga kunye nendlela yayo. Zizinto ekufuneka ziphathwe ngononophelo olukhulu kwaye zihlala zifunda ukuprinta okuhle.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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