Tolika kwaye uqonde ijika leLaffer

Ijika leLaffer

Ijika leLaffer ngumzobo obonisa ubudlelwane phakathi kwengeniso yerhafu kunye neerhafu zenzala. Injongo yegophe kukubonisa ukuba ingeniso yerhafu itshintsha njani xa amaxabiso enzala etshintsha. Umyili wale curve yingcali yezoqoqosho yaseMelika u-Arthur Laffer, ophikisa ngelithi ukonyuka kwexabiso lerhafu akuthethi ukuba kukunyuka kwengqokelela, kuba isiseko serhafu siyawa.

U-Laffer uthi ngalo mzuzu apho iqondo lerhafu lisetelwe kwi-zero, ingeniso kanondyebo ayikho kuba enyanisweni kungekho rhafu isetyenziswayo. Kwangokunjalo, ukuba iirhafu ziyi-100%, akukho rhafu yengeniso nokuba kungenxa yokuba akukho nkampani okanye mntu uya kuvuma ukuvelisa okulungileyo umvuzo wakhe awenzayo uya kusetyenziswa ngokupheleleyo ukuhlawula irhafu.

NgokukaLaffer, ukuba kwiindawo ezigqithileyo zerhafu, ingqokelela yerhafu yinto nje engekhoyo, isiphumo kukubakho kwenqanaba eliphakathi phakathi kwezi zinto zigqithisileyo ezivumela ukuqokelelwa okuphezulu okunokwenzeka. Ukuthathela ingqalelo inyani yokuba ukunyuka kwamaxabiso nakweyiphi na imeko yezoqoqosho kulihla ixabiso lemali, ukunyuka kwamaxabiso kunokubonwa njengerhafu ethathwa njengokulahleka kwexabiso njengesiphumo kanye sale meko kwaye abanini bezilinganisi eziyinyani zemali bahlala bejongana nemali. , iibhondi ezingafakwanga isalathiso kunye nezixhobo zemali.

Kungenxa yesi sizathu le nto Ijika leLaffer linokusetyenziselwa ukuhlalutya iziphumo zomahluko kumanani emali nakweyiphi na imeko kuqoqosho.

Igophe leLaffer kunye neerhafu

Singatsho ke ukuba Ijika leLaffer ngumfanekiso obonisa apho ungabona khona indlela uqoqosho lwelizwe oluchaphazeleka ngayo kukuba umvuzo worhulumente uxhomekeke kuphela kwiirhafu ezifumanekayo. Ijika likwazama ukucacisa ukuba ukwanda kweerhafu akuthethi ukuba kuguqulela ekufumaneni imali eninzi.

Isithuba sejikaji yeLaffer

Ngenxa yoko, ijika leLaffer Ibonisa ukuba xa urhulumente enyusa ingqokelela yakhe yerhafu ngaphaya kwendawo ethile, Unokufumana imali encinci xa kuthelekiswa nokwehlisa irhafu kwimpahla kunye neenkonzo. Ukongeza, xa urhulumente eyonyusa irhafu ngokugqithileyo, iindleko ezibangelwe kukongeza loo manyathelo kwiindleko kunye nomda wenzuzo wayo nayiphi na into elungileyo okanye inkonzo, kusenokungabi lula ukunikezela ngokulungileyo okanye inkonzo kuye nakubani na oyinikelayo okanye ukuyifumana. kuye nabani na omangalelayo.

Ngamanye amagama, ukuba umvelisi okanye umthengi uthathe isigqibo sokuba akanamdla okanye ngokuthe ngqo, abanako ukubonelela okanye bathenge loo nto okanye inkonzo. Ke ngoko, ukuthengiswa kwento elungileyo okanye inkonzo kuya kuwa kwaye ngenxa yoko, isixa serhafu esiqokelelweyo sinokuphinda siwe.

Ukuqonda ijika leLaffer

Kwigophe leLaffer, e i-axcissa axis iirhafu ezinokubakho zibekwa kwinzuzo yemveliso echongiweyo , ezilinganiswa ngepesenti ukusuka kwi-0% ukuya kwi-100% nalapho i-t0 ilingana no-0%, ngelixa i-tmax ilingana ne-100%. Kwelinye icala, i-axis yeekhompyuter yile isetyenziselwa ukumela ingeniso karhulumente kwimali kwaye ichongwe Nguwe.

El Igrafu yekhava yeLaffer Ingafundeka ngale ndlela: xa irhafu kwinto elungileyo okanye inkonzo ingu-t0, urhulumente emva koko akenzi nzuzo ngokuqokelela irhafu, kuba ingqokelela yeerhafu ayikho. Njengoko urhulumente eyonyusa irhafu ngakumbi, into elungileyo okanye inkonzo yenza inzuzo eninzi kwaye ngenxa yoko ingqokelela inyuka.

Ingcaciso ye-Laffer curve

Nangona kunjalo, ukwanda kwengeniso karhulumente ngokubanzi kwenzeka ukuya ku t *, ethi kule meko ichongwe njengeyona ndawo yokuqokelela. Ngamanye amagama, eli inokuba linqanaba lerhafu evumela urhulumente ukuba afumane eyona mali ngokuqokelela irhafu.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuqala kwi-t *, ukonyuka kweerhafu kwinto elungileyo okanye inkonzo, Yenza abavelisi kunye nabathengi bangabinamdla wokuvelisa kunye nokuthenga oko kulungileyo okanye inkonzo, elowo ngenxa yezizathu zakhe. Kwimeko yabavelisi, kuba ixesha ngalinye baya kufumana umvuzo omncinci, ngelixa kwimeko yabathengi, kuba baya kuhlala bejongana nokonyuka kwexabiso lokugqibela lokuthenga.

Ukuthathela ingqalelo into yokuba ingqokelela yerhafu ehambelana ne-t0 kunye ne-tmax, ayikho, iziphumo kukuba kufuneka kubekho iqondo eliphakathi lerhafu phakathi kwezi zinto zigqithisileyo, ezimelweyo ithiyori ibonisa elona xabiso liphezulu lemali eqokelelweyo. Konke oku kusekwe kwi-Rolle's Theorem, apho kuphikiswa ukuba ukuba ingeniso kanondyebo ngumsebenzi oqhubekayo wenqanaba lerhafu, ngenxa yoko ubuncinci ubuncinci kwinqanaba eliphakathi lesithuba.

Un Iziphumo ezinokubakho kwigophe Kukuba ukuba urhulumente unyusa uxinzelelo lwerhafu ngaphezulu kwepesenti ethile t *, ukonyuka kweerhafu kuya kuba yinto engenziwanga nto, kuba isivuno okanye amaxabiso enzuzo afunyenweyo aya esiba sezantsi.

Ngamanye amagama, baqala ukufumana ingqokelela esezantsi ngenxa yokuba umvelisi obekelwe bucala engasekho, abanye into abayenzayo isebenza kwintengiso emnyama, ngelixa abanye bekhetha ukungafumani nzuzo kuba urhulumente ungaphezulu kunoko bakuko fumana irhafu. Ngenxa yako konke oku, ijika leLaffer licebisa ukuba ukuncitshiswa kwirhafu kuyonyusa ingeniso kuphela ukuba iirhafu zangoku zigcinwa ngasekunene kwelona zinga liphezulu lekhephu.

Igophe leLaffer limele ukuba utshintsho kwiirhafu zivelisa iziphumo ezinxulumene ngokusondeleyo kwingeniso yerhafu: ifuthe lezoqoqosho kunye nefuthe lezibalo. Kwimeko yesiphumo soqoqosho, iimpembelelo ezilungileyo zerhafu kwezabasebenzi, imveliso kunye nengqesho yamkelwe, ngelixa iirhafu eziphezulu zivelisa iziphumo ezichaseneyo zoqoqosho ngokumohlwaya ukuthatha inxaxheba kwimisebenzi kunye nokunyuka kweerhafu.

Ngokwenxalenye yayo, isiphumo sezibalo sinento yokwenza nokuba iqondo lerhafu liphantsi, ingeniso yerhafu iyancitshiswa njengesiphumo senani lokuqokelelwa kwerhafu, ngelixa okwahlukileyo kwenzeka xa izinga lerhafu linyuka, ukusukela ingqokelela Iirhafu zilingana nenqanaba lerhafu eliphindaphindwe yingqokelela efumanekayo yerhafu.

Ngenxa yoko nangokuhambelana nefuthe lezoqoqosho, kunye I-100% yenqanaba lerhafu, urhulumente kwithiyori akazukufumana nayiphi na ingeniso kuba abarhafi banokutshintsha isimilo sabo ngenxa yerhafu ephezulu. Ngokusisiseko ngekhe babenaso isikhuthazo sokusebenza okanye kwimeko yabo banokukhetha enye indlela yokuphepha ukuhlawula irhafu, kubandakanya ukubhengeza kwintengiso emnyama okanye ukusebenzisa nje uqoqosho lotshintshiselwano.

Inxulumene njani irhafu yokunyuka kwamaxabiso kunye nejika leLaffer?

Igqabi leLaffer Economics

Con Ukunyuka kwamaxabiso ibonwa njengerhafu kuba yehlisa ixabiso lemali, kwaye ngenxa yoko, xa kukho ukunyuka kwamaxabiso, ukuba iiarhente zifuna ukugcina izikali zazo ziyinyani, kuya kufuneka zonyuse imali yazo. Yiyo loo nto nangona i-Laffer iyile ijika ukuba imele irhafu yengeniso e-United States, inokusetyenziswa kwimodeli yetax yokunyuka kwamaxabiso.

Kwisandle esinye ugcino lwaselwandle ngumvuzo okanye into eluncedo efunyanwa ngoorhulumente ngokuba noxanduva lokwenza imali kuphela, irhafu yokunyuka kwamaxabiso imele ilahleko enkulu kubo bonke abo bafumana inzuzo yabo ngenxa yokuhla kwamandla emali. Xa unoqoqosho olungakhuliyo, kokubini ukunyuka kwamaxabiso kunye nokugcinwa komhlaba kugungqana kuba ukunyuka kwamaxabiso kuyafana nokukhula kobungakanani bemali.

Nangona kunjalo, xa unoqoqosho olukhulayo, ukugcinwa komhlaba kunye nokunyuka kwamaxabiso kuyahluka kuba imfuno yemali inokunyuka ngenxa yonyuso lwengeniso. Ayisiyiyo loo nto kuphela, kunokwenzeka ukuba i-Central Bank iseke elona bango liphezulu njengonikezelo oluphezulu ngaphandle kokunyuka kwamaxabiso, kodwa iqokelela inzuzo. Oku kuthetha ukuba nangokwehla kwamandla emali, kusenokwenzeka ukuba kuqokelelwe ukugcinwa komhlaba njengesiphumo sokonyuka kwebango lemali.

Ubudlelwane phakathi kokunyuka kwamaxabiso kunye nokugcinwa kwe-seigni ukujongwa kwigophe leLafferUkuthathela ingqalelo ukuba njengoko ukunyuka kwamaxabiso kunyuka, oko akuthethi ukuba ingqokelela iyakonyuka nanjengoko imali efunyenweyo ingaphantsi. Xa ukunyuka kwamaxabiso kuyinto engu-zero, ukugcinwa kwe-seigniervation kukwang zero. Ngapha koko, ukuba imfuno yemali iyehla ngezinga elikhawulezayo xa kuthelekiswa nokunyuka kwamaxabiso, kulindelwe ukuba ukugcinwa komhlaba kuya kuncipha ngokuzinzileyo njengoko ukunyuka kwamaxabiso kunyuka ngokungapheliyo. Oku kwenzeka ngenxa yokuba iiarhente ziqala ukuguqula ibhalansi yazo yokwenyani ibe ziimpahla ezinamatyala amancinci, kodwa zinembuyekezo entle ngegama.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.