Yintoni ixabiso lotyalo-mali?

Kwindawo yokuthengisa izindlu nomhlaba, kukho iindidi ezininzi "zexabiso" elinikezelwe kwipropathi yokwenyani, zonke zisebenza ngeenjongo ezahlukeneyo kubantu abahlukeneyo. Xa kwenziwe naluphi na uhlobo lohlalutyo lwepropathi, ixabiso lalo liya kuhlala lithathelwa ingqalelo kakhulu.

Kule nqaku, siza kuvavanya umahluko phakathi kwexabiso lentengiso leasethi kunye nexabiso lotyalo-mali. Ixabiso lentengiso vs. Ixabiso lotyalo-mali kwi-CRE. Iindidi ezahlukeneyo ze "xabiso" kwintengiso yezindlu zibandakanya:

  • Ixabiso lentengiso
  • Ixabiso lotyalo-mali
  • Ixabiso elinganyangekiyo
  • Ixabiso lovavanyo
  • Ixabiso lotywala
  • Ixabiso lokutshintsha

Ngamanye amaxesha imigca phakathi kwezi ntlobo zexabiso inokuba mfiliba, ngakumbi xa intengiso kunye nexabiso lotyalo-mali liqwalaselwa ngokukodwa.

Iindidi zexabiso lokuthengiswa kwezindlu

Iindidi zexabiso lokuthengiswa kwezindlu

  1. Ixabiso lentengiso

Ixabiso lentengiso, okanye ixabiso "lemarike", lelona lixhaphakileyo ekubhekiswa kulo kuhlobo lwexabiso lepropathi, kwaye lixabiso elisetyenziswe kwinkqubo yokubhalwa kwemali mboleko.

IZiko loVavanyo "lweXabiso leMakethi": Oko lithetha kona "kwiZiko loVavanyo linikezela ngesishwankathelo sembali" yexabiso "kunye" nexabiso lentengiso, "kubandakanya neenkcazo ezininzi ezivela kwimithombo eyahlukeneyo.

Umzekelo ngulowo weFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), ethi ixabiso lentengiso "lelona xabiso linokubakho ekufuneka ipropathi ibe nalo kwimarike yokhuphiswano evulekileyo kuzo zonke iimeko eziyimfuneko kwintengiso efanelekileyo.".

Ngamanye amagama, umthengi uzimisele ukuhlawula ntoni, kwaye umthengisi uzimisele ukwamkela, unikwe ukuba zonke ezinye iimeko zisemgangathweni kwaye zilindelwe.

  1. Ixabiso lotyalo-mali

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali lixabiso elinikezelwa ngumnini-mali othile. Lixabiso anokuthi umtyali mali azimisele ukulihlawula ipropathi.

Ngaphandle kwexabiso lentengiso, kuya kuhlala kukho umda kwinto umtyali-mali azimisele ngayo ukungena kwi-asethi.

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali lisekwe kwiziqinisekiso zomtyali mali, inkunzi efumanekayo, irhafu, kunye nezemali.

  1. Ixabiso elinganyangekiyo

Oku kubhekisa kwisixa sepropathi esengozini yomonakalo, ukumisela i-inshurensi.

Ngamanye amagama, lithini ixabiso lesahlulo sepropathi esinokugqunywa kwipolisi yeinshurensi.

  1. Ixabiso elilinganisiweyo

Ixabiso elilinganisiweyo lixabiso lepropathi elichongwe ngumcebisi werhafu wasekhaya ngeenjongo zerhafu yepropathi.

  1. Ixabiso lotywala

Ixabiso lokuchithwa libeka ixabiso eliza kuthengiswa yipropati ngexesha lokuthengisa ngokunyanzeliswa, njengokutshatyalaliswa okanye ukuthengiswa kweerhafu.

Ixabiso lokucinywa lisetyenziswa ngamanye amaxesha xa kukho iwindow encinci yokuvezwa kwemarike, okanye ukuba kukho ezinye iimeko zokuthengisa ezithintelayo.

  1. Ixabiso lokutshintsha

Ezi ziindleko zokutshintsha ubume ngobume obufanayo obubambeleyo, obunento efanayo nepropathi yoqobo.

Ngoku, ipropathi yorhwebo inokuba nazo naziphi na ezi ntlobo zingentla zexabiso ezimiselwe ngalo naliphi na ixesha.

Kwaye kunokwenzeka ukuba akukho namnye kumaxabiso afanayo (nangona kunokwenzeka ukuba ubuncinci bawo basondele).

Oku kuyinyani ngakumbi xa kuthathelwa ingqalelo umahluko phakathi kwexabiso lentengiso kunye nexabiso lotyalo-mali: kuba ipropathi kufuneka inyuse isixa esithile ayithethi ukuba umtyali mali uza kunika into ekufuphi kuyo.

Kananjalo, into ebonwa njenge "xabisekileyo "kwintengiso ethile isenokungabi njalo kumtyali mali.

Ukugcina iinkcazo nganye nganye engqondweni, masijonge kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zeemarike kunye nexabiso lotyalo-mali, ukubonisa umahluko wabo ngendlela yegranular.

Ixabiso lentengiso lisondela

Ixabiso lentengiso yinto emiselweyo ngexesha lokuxabisa.

Ngexesha lenkqubo yokubhalwa kwemali mboleko, ababolekisi abaninzi baya kusebenzisa umvavanyi wangaphandle ukufumana uqikelelo lwexabiso lentengiso yepropathi.

Ixabiso lentengiso yinto esetyenziselwa ukumisela isixa esifanelekileyo semali mboleko.

Ke abavavanyi balibona njani ixabiso lentengiso?

Zininzi iindlela. Kodwa, ngaphambi kokuba yenzeke loo nto, ukusetyenziswa kwepropathi okuphezulu kufuneka kwahlulwe.

Ngokusisiseko, into ekufuneka igqityiwe kukusetyenziswa ngokusemthethweni kwepropathi ethi ivelise elona xabiso liphezulu- ke cinga ngezinto ezifana nokucandwa komhlaba, ukusetyenziswa kwepropathi, ubungakanani bepropathi, ukusebenza kwemali, njalo njalo.

Ngamafutshane, yintoni "isilingi" yepropathi kunye nayo yonke ipasile?

Nje ukuba konke oko kusetelwe elityeni, umvavanyi unokuqhubela phambili novavanyo lwepropathi.

Ngokubanzi, zintathu iindlela zokuxabisa ezisetyenziswa ngabavavanyi ukumisela ixabiso elifanelekileyo lentengiso yeasethi yeshishini:

  1. Indlela yokuthengisa:

Indlela yokuthengisa ikunika ixabiso lepropathi ngokujonga ezinye izinto zamva nje ezithengiswayo.

  1. Indlela yoNgeniso mali:

Indlela esekwe kwingeniso ifumana ixabiso lepropathi kwingeniso eyivelisayo.

  1. Indlela yeendleko

Le ndlela isisiseko sexabiso lepropathi kwiindleko zokuphinda uvelise loo propati, kungabikho nakuphi na ukuhla kwexabiso.

Ixabiso lokutyalomali lisondela

Ngelixa inkqubo yexabiso lentengiso isetyenziselwa ukuvavanywa kokubhalwa kwemali mboleko, xa usenza isigqibo sokuba uza kuhlawula malini kwipropathi, abatyali mali bakwathathela ingqalelo ukuba ipropathi ixabiseke kangakanani kubo.

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali sisixa-mali azimiseleyo ukusihlawula, ngokubhekisele kwiinjongo zabo, ukubuya ekujoliswe kuko, kunye nenqanaba lerhafu.

Ke, kuba ixabiso lentengiso lihlala lihlukile kwintengiso, ixabiso lotyalo mali lahlukile kutyalo mali olukuyo.

Oko kuza nenani lezinye iindlela ezinokusetyenziselwa ukumisela ixabiso, ngokuchaseneyo nokuvavanywa ngokusesikweni okufunekayo ngabavavanyi.

Oku kulandelayo ngamanyathelo aqhelekileyo oqingqo-maxabiso kutyalo-mali:

  1. Ukuthengisa okuthelekisekayo (iiComps):

Ngokusisiseko, le yindlela yokuthelekisa efanayo ekhankanywe apha ngasentla.

  1. Umvuzo ophindaphindwayo (GRM)

Obu budlelwane obulinganisa ixabiso ngokuthatha umvuzo opheleleyo oveliswa yipropathi unyaka wonke kwaye ubuphinda phinda ngentengiselwano esekwe kwimarike.

  1. Imali ezinkozo ekubuyisweni kwemali

Imbuyekezo yekheshi bobunye ubudlelwane obulula, obubalwa ngokuthatha i-pro forma flow flow for the first year (phambi kweerhafu) ize yahlulwe ngexabiso elipheleleyo lotyalo-mali lokuqala.

  1. Ukutsala ngqo

Le yeyona ndlela inye ngqo yokwenza imali ekhankanywe apha ngasentla esetyenziswa ngabavavanyi. Ukuhlanganisa ingeniso yepropathi yindlela eqhelekileyo kwaye elula yokufumanisa ixabiso lentengiso kunye nexabiso lotyalo-mali kwipropathi yorhwebo.

  1. Ukuhamba kwemali ngesaphulelo

Imodeli yokuhamba kwemali enesaphulelo isetyenziselwa ukufumana ireyithi yangaphakathi yembuyekezo (i-IRR), ixabiso langoku elipheleleyo, kunye nokuthelekiswa kwemali eyinkunzi.

Ke, ngokwazi iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokwenza la maxabiso, masinike ukubambeka kwindlela ezahlukileyo ngayo ezi ndidi zamaxabiso.

Ixabiso lentengiso vs. Ixabiso lotyalo-mali

Ngamafutshane, ixabiso lentengiso lixabiso lepropathi kwintengiso evulekileyo, emiselwe kuvavanyo.

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali ligqitywa ngoyena mtyali mali ngokusekwe kwiimpawu kunye neenjongo zakhe zotyalo-mali.

Siza kubonisa umzekelo ongezantsi:

Masithi umtyali mali ngamnye ucinga ngokufumana indlu encinci.

Ipropathi iphantsi kwesivumelwano se- $ 1.2 yezigidi, kwaye ifuna ubuncinci i-10% yembuyekezo kwi-asethi.

Ngokusekwe kwimbuyekezo ekujoliswe kuyo ngumtyali mali, ungahlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-1,4 yezigidi zeerandi kwaye uhlangane nethagethi yakho.

Kule meko, umtyalomali ufumanisa ukuba angafumana imali mboleko eyi- $ 960.000 (80% yexabiso lemali mboleko), ehlawulwe kwiminyaka engama-20 kwi-5%.

Ngoku, masithi ngexesha lenkqubo yokubhala phantsi, ukuvavanywa kwebhanki yomntu wesithathu kuxabisa ipropathi kwi- $ 1.000.000 endaweni ye- $ 1,2 yezigidi umthengi avalelwe kuyo.

Olo vavanyo luya kunciphisa inani elifanelekileyo lemali mboleko ukuya kwi-800.000 yeedola (ngokusekwe kwi-80% ye-LTV), endaweni ye-960.000 yeedola ebikade ilindelwe ngaphambili.

Ngelishwa, nangona kunjalo, kule meko, umthengisi uyala ukuthengisa ngemali engaphantsi kwe- $ 1.200.000.

Oko kuyakwenza ukuba intengiselwano ibe ngaphezulu kwentengiso, oko kuthetha ukuba ixabiso lentengiso liphezulu kunexabiso langoku lepropathi.

Ngaba iyavakala into yokuba umtyali mali aqhubeke nale nto?

Imali mboleko entsha inganciphisa ukubuya ukusuka kwi-22% ukuya kwi-16%, kodwa loo nto isadlula kwinjongo yomtyali mali yokubuya kwe-10%.

Kwiimeko ezininzi, ixabiso lentengiso kunye notyalo mali kufuneka lilingane, kodwa ngamanye amaxesha ziyahluka.

Ngapha koko, kunokwenzeka ukuba ixabiso lotyalo-mali liphezulu kunexabiso lentengiso.

Oku kunokwenzeka xa ixabiso lomthengi liphezulu kunexabiso eliphakathi, umthengi onolwazi.

Umzekelo, masithi ishishini linwenwela kwisakhiwo esitsha ngaphesheya kwesitalato ukusuka kwindawo esikuyo ngoku, sihlawula ngaphezulu kwexabiso lentengiso ukuze sikhule kufutshane kwaye sigcwalise indawo enokuhlala abantu abakhuphisana nabo.

Xa ujonge isibonelelo seqhinga, ixabiso liphezulu kubo - iindleko ezongezelelekileyo zinokuthetheleleka.

Kwimeko yomtyali mali, ixabiso lotyalo mali linokugqitha kwixabiso lentengiso ngenxa yeemeko ezifanelekileyo zezemali okanye unyango lwerhafu olungadluliselwayo.

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali, ewe, nalo lingaphantsi kwexabiso lentengiso.

Mhlawumbi umtyalomali ufuna isakhiwo seofisi, kodwa ngokukodwa kwiintsapho ezininzi.

Kubo, isakhiwo seofisi siza kuba nexabiso eliphantsi lotyalo-mali ngenxa yejika lokufunda kunye nezinye iindleko zokunyuka ezichaphazelekayo.

Enye imeko apho ixabiso lotyalo-mali lingaphantsi kwexabiso lentengiso ukuba ngaba umtyali mali ufuna imbuyekezo engaphezulu komndilili esekwe kwintsebenzo yepotifoliyo esele ikho.

Ukufumana amashishini anengqiqo

Lilonke, kulo naliphi na ishishini lokuthengiswa kwezindlu nomhlaba, kuxhomekeke.

Iimeko ziyahluka kakhulu.

Ngokubanzi, elona nyathelo likhuselekileyo kukuqinisekisa ukuba utyalomali luyavakala kuwo omabini la manyathelo exabiso.

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali lixhomekeke ngakumbi, kwaye ke akufuneki ukuba lisetyenziswe gwenxa, kodwa kufuneka lithathelwe ingqalelo.

Ukubaluleka kwexabiso lotyalo-mali

Isizathu sokuba ixabiso lotyalo mali lubalulekile kubathengi bepropathi kukuba bafuna ukuthelekisa ixabiso lepropathi kunye nenqanaba elilindelekileyo lokubuya. Xa befumana umyinge othile wembuyekezo, banokulinganisa umgca osezantsi wotyalo-mali kunye nexabiso eliqikelelweyo abaza kulihlawula ipropathi. Oku kuvumela umtyali-mali ukuba enze izigqibo ezifanelekileyo zokuthenga ezihambelana neenjongo zotyalo-mali.

Ungalichaza njani ixabiso lotyalo-mali

Kuba ixabiso lotyalo mali luxhomekeke kwiinjongo zomtyali mali, ixabiso lihlukile kumtyali ngamnye. Abatyalomali abohlukeneyo banokusebenzisa iindlela ezifanayo zokuxabisa kwaye bafumane amaxabiso ahlukeneyo otyalo-mali. Abatyalomali banokukhetha kwiindlela ezininzi zokuxabisa xa bejonga ixabiso lotyalo-mali lweasethi. Apha ngezantsi kukho amanyathelo aqhelekileyo asetyenziswa kutyalo-mali:

  1. Ukuthengiswa okuthelekiswayo

Abavavanyi bakwasebenzisa indlela yokuthelekisa intengiso. Umtyalo-mali uya kuthelekisa iipropathi ezifanayo nge-square footage okanye ngeeyunithi.

  1. Umvuzo ophindaphindwayo

I-metric ilinganisa ixabiso lotyalo-mali ngokuphindaphinda umvuzo opheleleyo oveliswa yipropathi ngonyaka omnye ngumphindisi wengeniso epheleleyo (GRM). Inani leGRM lithathwe kwiipropathi ezifanayo kwimarike enye.

  1. Buyisela ngemali ezinkozo

Inani elibuyiswayo libalwa ngokwahlulahlula imali yonyaka wokuqala yonyaka kutyalo-mali lokuqala.

  1.  Ukutsala ngqo

Ukudityaniswa ngokuthe ngqo lelinye inyathelo elisetyenziswe ngabavavanyi. Ibandakanya ukwenza ingeniso yepropathi kwaye iyindlela eqhelekileyo esetyenziselwa ukumisela ixabiso lentengiso kunye notyalo mali lwepropathi yorhwebo.

  1. Ukuhamba kwemali okunesaphulelo (DCF)

Imodeli yeDCF isetyenziselwa ukubala ixabiso elikhoyo ngoku, ireyithi yangaphakathi yokubuya, kunye nokuthelekiswa kwemali eyinkunzi. Iirhafu ezidweliswe apha ngasentla, ngelixa zibonelela ngolwazi oluluncedo, nazo zinemiqobo eliqela. Oku kusikelwa umda kusonjululwa ngokubala ukuhla kwemali ezinkozo enesaphulelo.

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali kuthelekiswa nexabiso lentengiso

Ngelixa ixabiso lotyalo-mali lilinganisa ixabiso elinokubakho lotyalomali ngokusekwe kwiimeko ezithile, ixabiso lemarike lilinganisa elona xabiso lotyalo mali olusekwe kumandla obonelelo kunye nemfuno kwintengiso yasimahla. Ixabiso lentengiso limiselwa ngenkqubo yovavanyo. Yahlukile kwixabiso lotyalo-mali, elithathela ingqalelo iinjongo ezizodwa zomntu, iinjongo kunye neemfuno zepropathi.

Ixabiso lotyalo-mali lingaphantsi okanye liphezulu kunexabiso lemarike. Kuxhomekeke kwimeko ethile yepropathi ngelo xesha. Ixabiso lotyalo-mali linokuba likhulu kunexabiso lentengiso ukuba umthengi ubeka ixabiso elingaphezulu kwipropathi kunomthengi onolwazi.

Kwilizwe lokwenyani, le meko inokubakho ukuba inkampani iyazandisa izibonelelo zayo kwisakhiwo esikhulu esele sithengisiwe kwiofisi yayo yangoku. Inkampani ikulungele ukuvuma kwixabiso eliphezulu kunexabiso lentengiso lesakhiwo ukuqinisekisa ukuba abo bakhuphisana nabo bahlala ngaphandle kwendawo.

Kwimeko enjalo, ixabiso lotyalo-mali olongezelelekileyo lithathwa kwisibonelelo sobuchule esiya kuzuzwa yinkampani ngokuthenga ipropathi. Umtyalomali omnye unokuvuma kwixabiso lotyalo-mali eliphezulu kunexabiso lentengiso. Oku kwenzeka ukuba umtyalomali ufumana inqanaba elikhethekileyo lerhafu okanye iimeko zoncedo ezilunge kakhulu.

Ngenye indlela, ixabiso lotyalo mali linokuba ngaphantsi kwexabiso lentengiso. Inokwenzeka xa utyalomali ayilulo uhlobo lwepropathi apho umtyali-mali angahlala egxila kwimizamo yakhe. Umzekelo, umphuhlisi wearhente yokuthengisa izindlu nomhlaba ethathela ingqalelo umbono wokwakha ihotele unokwenza ixabiso lotyalo mali lube ngaphantsi kwexabiso lentengiso.

Isenokuba sisiphumo seendleko eziphezulu ezibandakanyekayo ekufundeni ukuphuhlisa ipropathi okanye ngenxa yokuba abatyali zimali bafuna imbuyekezo engaphezulu komndilili kwipropathi ngenxa yolwabiwo kunye nokwahluka kwepotifoliyo. Oku kusikelwa umda kusonjululwa ngokubala ukuhla kwemali ezinkozo enesaphulelo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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