Ungayenza njani xa uphantsi kovalo lwesitokhwe?

ukuphaphazela Imeko yeemarike zamasheya zamanye amazwe ingaphezulu kwengozi kwimidla yabatyali mali abancinci nabaphakathi. Apho ukungazinzi kunye nokungazinzi kweemarike zezemali kuyingozi enkulu enokuthi ichaphazele ukuqikelelwa kwamasheya ezidweliswe kuzo. Akunakulityalwa ukuba uloyiko olubambe iiarhente ezahlukeneyo zezemali lunokuba ngumqondiso onamandla malunga nento enokwenzeka kwiimarike zemali ukusukela ngoku. Kungumngcipheko ukuba abasebenzisi kufuneka bacinge ngaphambi kokufezekiswa kwesi siqikelelo kungekho nto intle.

Ukwehla kuqoqosho lwase-US yenye yezinto ezoyikisayo icandelo elikhulu labatyali mali. Ngale ndlela, abaphathi bengxowa mali baseMelika benze urhoxiso lwe izithuba ezimfutshane kwinto enokwenzeka kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezizayo, iiveki okanye iinyanga. Le nyaniso ichaphazela ezinye ii-asethi eziyimali, njengokuhla kokuthengwa kweebond. Isibonakaliso malunga nento enokwenzeka kwiimarike ze-equity kwaye siza kuzama ukuhlalutya kweli nqaku malunga nenye yeemeko ezimbi kakhulu ezinokuthi zenzeke kwi-stock market: i-panic stock market.

Ngaloo ngqiqo, i I-Federal Reserve Bank yaseAtlanta (EUnited States) ibipapasha kwiindawo ezisandula ukwenzeka imeko apho izinga lokunciphisa inzala liqikelelwa kunyaka wama-2020 nowama-2021. Ukuba ezi ngqikelelo ziyafezekiswa, ngekhe kumangalise ukuba indlela ezenziwa ngayo iimarike zemasheya ngokucacileyo iyehla. Ngokwehla kweziphumo kokhuseleko oludweliswe kwiimarike zezabelo. Akumangalisi ukuba ukusebenza kwe-S & P 500 kube mbi kakhulu kwikota yesithathu yonyaka ophelileyo. Ngaphandle kokukhula okubalulekileyo ngexesha lenkqubo ye-bearish

Kuthekani ukuba uvalo lwentengiso yemasheya lufika?

Ibhokhwe Kwimeko nayiphi na into, utshintsho oluthile olubalulekileyo oluhlalutyo oluvela kumbono wobugcisa kwi-Ibex 35 esese ixesha elingenammiselo, nangona ihlala iphantsi kwendlela esezantsi yokuhla kunye nokwenziwa kokuhla kokuphakama okuphezulu kunye nokuhla. Kodwa ayisiyonyani kangako ukuba abanye abahlalutyi beemarike zokulingana babelumkisile malunga nokuba kungenzeka ukuba abatyali mali babe namaxhala emarike esitokhwe nanini na. Ngokukodwa, isuselwe kwiingxaki ezinamatyala kwamanye amazwe kunye namazwe.

Ukuba oku kuyenzeka ngenene, akusayi kubakho khetho ngaphandle kokubanakho ukulumka kakhulu ukukhusela iipotifoliyo zethu zotyalo-mali. Hayi ngelize, yimali yakho esesichengeni ekugqibeleni kwaye ke ayicetyiswa ukushiya yonke into ezandleni zikarhulumente ukuphucula njengoko kwenzekile kubatyali mali abancinci nabaphakathi xa le nkqubo incinci kakhulu enqwenelekayo kubo iphuhlile. Ukulungisa le ngxaki inzima siza kukubonelela ngezikhokelo zokuziphatha ukuze wazi ukuba ungazenza njani ngokuzimisela okukhulu kwezi meko zikhethekileyo.

Hlaziya amagama otyalo mali

Okokuqala, kuya kuba ngaphezulu kokuyimfuneko ukuba uchaze ukuba leliphi ixesha lesigxina apho utyalo-mali lwakho kwimarike yemasheya lujolise khona: mfutshane, phakathi okanye ixesha elide. Kuba ngokuxhomekeke kolu tshintsho, kuya kufuneka usebenzise isicwangciso esinye okanye esinye ukuya khusela umdla wakho njengomtyali mali. Kungenxa yokuba ukuba ukuthatha izikhundla kwenziwe ixesha elifutshane, elona qhinga lilungileyo onokulisebenzisa kwimeko yokuphazamiseka kwintengiso yesitokhwe kukulungisa izikhundla ngokukhawuleza njengoko unakho ngenxa yokuba ungaphulukana nemali eninzi kunaleyo uyenzileyo de kube lelo xesha .

Kuhlala kungcono ukuba ulahlekelwe li-10% kunama-50% kuqikelelo lwamaxabiso esitokhwe. Esi sisifundo ekufuneka usifunde kwiziqendu ezidlulileyo zokwehla okukhulu kwezemali. Ingakumbi ukuba injongo yakho yayijolise kwi amaxesha amafutshane ukwenza iiasethi zakho zobuqu okanye zosapho zinenzuzo. Nokuba kunjalo, awunakukhathazeka malunga nokwenza isigqibo esiqatha kangako kuba akufuneki uzibuze ukuba ulahlekelwe yintoni, kodwa ngokuchaseneyo kuya kufuneka uhlalutye into onokuphulukana nayo ngalo mzuzu. Ewe kunjalo, kwimeko yokuphaphazela kwintengiso yesitokhwe kuninzi kwaye ngaphezulu kunokuba ucinga njalo ekuqaleni.

Abatyalomali abazinzileyo

Enye into eyahluke kakhulu ibhekisa kwizenzo zabatyali mali abazinzileyo kwizikhundla zabo kwizabelo. Oko kukuthi, abafuni imisebenzi yokuqikelela kangangeentsuku okanye iiveki ezimbalwa, kodwa iinjongo zabo zisetelwe kwixesha eliphakathi nelide. Kule meko, isicwangciso sakho siya kwahluka ngokusekwe kule nto ibalulekileyo. Kuba le nyani inokungaqapheleki, ngethemba lokuba njengoko iminyaka ihamba Ixabiso lesabelo liyachacha. Kungenxa yokuba kukho intetho phakathi kwabatyali mali abanamava ngakumbi kwiimarike zezemali ezithi "kwintengiso yexesha elide isoloko iphumelela." Oku akusoloko kuyinyani, kodwa kuhlangatyezwana nako kwesiqhelo.

Kwelinye icala, yintoni ngokungathandabuzekiyo emele ukwaphuka kwemakethi yamasheya lithuba lokwenyani lokuvelisa ishishini elinenzuzo kakhulu. Awunakulibala ukuba ukuphela kosuku unako thenga izitokhwe ezingabizi kakhulu, ngexabiso elinokukhuphisana kakhulu kwimarike ngenxa yoku kubaluleke kakhulu kwaye kwangaxeshanye kuthambekele phambili. Ngezaphulelo ezinokuthi zenziwe ngokusesikweni nge-50% okanye nangaphezulu xa kuthelekiswa namaxabiso ngaphambi kwesitokhwe semarike yestokhwe. Apho baya kuba nakho ukuphinda bavavanye okuphezulu kunaphambi kwengxaki. Oku kuyaziwa zizandla ezomeleleyo zentengiso kwaye ke bayazi ukuba bangayisebenzisa njani ngokufanelekileyo.

Ngothotho lwezilumkiso

umendo Ngayiphi na imeko, uthintelo sesona sixhobo silungileyo esifumanekayo kubatyali zimali abancinci nabaphakathi ukujongana nale meko. Ityala lihlala liphakuzela kwimarike yemasheya eza ngesiquphe kwaye ayikuvumeli ukuba usabele ngokusebenza okuthile. Nangona kunjalo, kukho imiqondiso enokubonisa ukuba le ntshukumo ibalaseleyo kwiimarike zamasheya ikufuphi. Njengomzekelo, a utshintsho olukhawulezileyo kumkhwa kwaye ihamba nomthamo omkhulu wokugaya abantu. Inokuba sisikhombisi esithembeke ngakumbi okanye esingaphantsi malunga nento enokwenzeka kwiinyanga ezimbalwa ezizayo.

Esinye isibonakaliso sokufumanisa le meko kwiimarike zezemali kukuba sithathwe kubukho bezinye ibhola. Ngale ndlela, kwanele ukukhumbula okwenzekileyo kwiinkampani zetekhnoloji kwii-90s. Okanye kwibhola efanayo yezitena eyayisesinye sezona zinto zibalulekileyo ekubonakaliseni ingxaki yezoqoqosho ngo-2007 nango-2008 ngeziphumo ezaziwa ngumntu wonke ngalo mzuzu. Ngaphandle kwezinye izinto zobuchwephesha kwaye mhlawumbi nakwimbono esisiseko.

Ngawaphi amaxabiso abuthathaka?

ubuchwephesha Omnye umbuzo ekufuneka ubuzwe kwimeko enokubakho yokothuswa yimarike yemasheya kukubona ezona stock zisemngciphekweni wokuva ubunzima bokuwa okukhulu. Ewe, kwezi meko akukho zikhetho kwaye zonke ziyehla kwisithuba sexesha elide. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ezinye iinkampani ezidwelisiweyo ezenza kakubi kunezinye kwezi nkqubo zokuhla kwexabiso lentengiso. Njengomzekelo amacandelo ejikelezayo, ezezimali, ezobuchwephesha kwaye ngokubanzi zinxibelelene nokukhula koqoqosho lwamanye amazwe. Ewe kunjalo, zezona zichaphazeleka kakhulu kwiziphumo zoko kubizwa ngokuba luloyiko lwentengiso yesitokhwe.

Kwelinye icala, kukho amanye amacandelo kwaye nangona bekwamkela ukwehla kwexabiso labo kwimarike yemasheya, bakwenza oko ngamandla angaphantsi kunalawo. Olu ke lubizo olubizwa ngokuba kukuzikhusela kwaye kwezinye iimeko lisebenza njengendawo yokubalekela kwisitokhwe esikhulu kwiimarike zezemali. Yimeko ethile ye- iinkampani zombane kwaye kwezinye iimeko ezo zinxulumene nokutya. Oko akuthethi ukuba isenzo sakho siyakuxabisa kule meko, kodwa ke baya kwenza ngcono kunabanye.

Hlala kwimali yokuhlawula amatyala

Ekuphela kwendlela yokuphuma kule nkqubo ingaphazanyiswanga kukuba ube lulwelo ngokupheleleyo. Kunzima kakhulu ukuyenza, kodwa ngaphambi kokuba iintshukumo zokuqala eziphazamisayo zenze ngokusesikweni esi sicwangciso sotyalo mali. Ngokufanelekileyo, rhoxisa izikhundla kwiimarike ze-equity ukuzigcina kwiimveliso zebhanki zexesha lokuphila (iidiphozithi zexesha, amanqaku ezithembiso zikazwelonke okanye iiakhawunti ezinengeniso ephezulu). Kwelinye icala, iyakusebenza ukubuyela kwiimarike zemali xa le nkqubo igqibile, kodwa ngexhamla enkulu yokuba izabelo zeenkampani ezidwelisiweyo zinokuthengwa ngexabiso elinokhuphiswano ngakumbi kunangaphambili.

Okokugqibela, kufanele kukhunjulwe ukuba iingxowa azihli okanye zinyuke ngonaphakade, njengoko uza kwazi ngamava akho. Kwaye emva kwethuba lokuphazamiseka kwintengiso yesitokhwe kuvela ukubuyela kwabo ebomini, nokuba kunjalo ngamandla amakhulu kunyuko. Ke ngoko, kuya kufuneka uwulungele lo mzuzu mkhulu kwaye eyona ndlela yokuwenza kukuba ube kwityala lakho kwaye ugcine imali oyigcinileyo kwiakhawunti yakho yokutshekisha. Ubuncinci uzakulala ngcono xa ujongene nento enokwenzeka kuwe kwiinyanga ezininzi kunye neenyanga, oko kukuthi emva kwayo yonke loo nto.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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