Ungawongeza njani umhlala-phantsi omncinci kubantu abadla umhlalaphantsi?

ipenshoni

Ipesenti yomndilili eSpain ikhule kumaxesha akutshanje malunga neepesenti ezi-6. Kude kube ufikelele isixa sama-985,16 euros ngenyangaNgokwedatha ebonelelwe liSebe lezeMisebenzi. Nangona inyani efanelekileyo kulo mkhuba kukuba sele kukho amaphondo aliqela aseSpain anepenshini yomndilili esele idlulile kwi-1.000 700 euros ngenyanga. Ngayiphi na imeko, ubuncinci bepenshini kumhlala phantsi abukafiki kwi-XNUMX euro ngenyanga, oko kuthetha ukuba amandla okuthenga asezantsi kakhulu kwiminyaka yegolide yabemi baseSpain.

Kwiimeko zabantu abadla umhlala-phantsi nabona bantu badla umhlala-phantsi. Ukuze ngale ndlela babe ne- amandla aphezulu okuthenga ukonwabela loo minyaka ikhethekileyo ebomini bakho. Ewe, aba bantu basenokwenza ibhanki yokonga ezinzileyo kunye nehlala ixesha elide ngenxa yoko akufuneki bahlawulele umvuzo ophantsi kangako xa bethatha umhlalaphantsi. Ukongeza, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kukuba ayizukuthatha mzamo omkhulu ukuyifeza, yibanemali yokonga kwaba bantu.

Konke oku, kwimeko ngokubanzi apho iSebe lezabaSebenzi lifuna ukunyusa iminyaka yobudala yomhlalaphantsi ukuya kuthi ga kwiminyaka engama-65,5 ngo-2048. Ayothusi into yokuba esinye sezindululo uKhuseleko afuna ukulwenza kukukhuthaza ukurhoxa kade okanye ukohlwaya abo bakwenza kwangaphambili ngegalelo eliphezulu. Kuyo nayiphi na imeko, siza kuzityhila iinkqubo ezinokuba naba bantu ukuba basebenzisa isicwangciso sokonga esingaphezulu okanye esingacwangciswanga, ngokubanzi ngezahlulo ezisasazwa ngokuthengwa nokuthengiswa kwezabelo kwimarike yemasheya okanye kwiingxowa mali zotyalo mali. Ngezivuno ezinokufikelela kumanqanaba asondele kakhulu kwi-10%.

Ipenshini yomelezelwe yizahlulo

izahlulo

Elinye lawona maqhinga alungileyo okuqinisa ubuncinci bepenshini kusekwe ngezahlulo Ngokuthengwa nokuthengiswa kwezabelo kwimarike yemasheya. Ewe, ngokutshintshiselana ngokulondolozwa kwee-euro ezingama-50.000 kwaye ukuba umiselwe ukhuseleko olunikezela ngembuyekezo ngesahlulo esikufutshane ne-7%, ingeniso esisigxina kunye neqinisekisiweyo inokufumaneka rhoqo ngenyanga phakathi kwe-250 kunye ne-300 ye-euro abanokuyithengisa yongeza ipenshoni yomhlalaphantsi. Ke kwezi ndlela, amandla okuthenga aba bantu aphezulu kancinci kwaye bakwimeko yokuhlangabezana neyona ndleko iphambili ekhaya.

Abasebenzisi banokukhetha ezinye izabelo ezingenangeniso, kwaye kwimeko leyo ingeniso iya kuncitshiswa ngokuqhubekayo. Yiyo le, nangayiphi na indlela, enye indlela ethathe umhlala-phantsi ngeli xesha ukuze bakwazi ukubona imivuzo yabo ikhula kwisigaba segolide sobomi babo. Konke oku ngaphandle kokuvela kotyalo-mali kwiimarike zezabelo. Ayothusi into yokuba banokwenza ukuba umvuzo wabo ube nenzuzo ngale ndlela, nangona kunjalo ithwala iingozi ezininzi Ngaphezu kweyangaphambili ngenxa yokungazinzi okunokuthi kuveliswe kwezi marike kude kunciphise ikapitali etyalomali.

Ngokusebenzisa imali yotyalo-mali

Olunye ukhetho abanokuthi bathabathe umhlala-phantsi abanalo ipenshini esezantsi ukusukela ngoku kukusebenzisa izabelo ezinikezelwa yimali yotyalo mali. Mhlawumbi abanye abasebenzisi abayazi, kodwa ngale mveliso yemali lo mvuzo ungaguquguqukiyo unokufunyanwa kubathathi-nxaxheba bezezimali. Kuba, enyanisweni, kukho iimveliso ezingaphezulu kwezi mpawu ezihambisa izabelo kunokuba abatyali zimali bakholelwa okwangoku. Nangona kuqhelekile ukuba le ntlawulo yenziwe ibesemthethweni kwiingxowa mali isiseko sezabeloZikwenzeka nakwingeniso emiselweyo kwaye nakwiimodeli ezizezinye. Ngenye yezinto ezinqabileyo eziboniswe yile marike kwiminyaka yamuva nangaphezulu kwezinye izinto zobugcisa.

Kwelinye icala, izabelo kwiimali zotyalo-mali zinendlela efanayo yokuthenga kunye nokuthengisa izabelo kwimarike yemasheya, phantse akukho mahluko ukuthathela ingqalelo umvuzo wakho. Akumangalisi ukuba sithethe ngenkqubo efanayo yokuhlawula kuba ekupheleni kosuku isekhona ngokufanayo, oko kukuthi, izabelo. Njengayo enye inkqubo emiselweyo yokuphucula ezona pension zisezantsi ezikhoyo ngoku kwilizwe lethu. Yimali encinci kuphela eyimfuneko yokutyala imali kule mveliso kutyalo-mali lwabucala. Ngelo xesha linye inokufumana inzuzo ngokudweliswa kwayo kwiimarike zemali, nokuba yeyiphi na.

Izinto eziluncedo zale nkqubo yotyalo-mali

utyalo mali

Kumatyala amabini esele siwakhankanyile kukho uthotho lwezibonelelo esinokuthi sizuze kuzo kwaye ke ngoko kulunge kakhulu ukuba sizazi kula maxesha achanekileyo. Ngokukodwa ukuba sikhetha le modeli yolondolozo ikhethekileyo kwaye phakathi kwayo le minikelo ilandelayo esiyibhengeza apha ngezantsi ibonakala:

  • Unokulawula olu hlobo lwesahlulelo imini yonke kwaye ulungele iimfuno zabasebenzisi bakho. Oko kukuthi, ayilotyalomali olumiyo, kodwa ngokuchaseneyo iguquguquke kakhulu.
  • Akuyomfuneko wenze iminikelo yemali inyanga nenyanga njengoko kusenzeka kwizicwangciso zepenshini. Endaweni yoko, iqala kwigalelo lokuqala kwaye inokunyuswa ngaphezulu kweenyanga okanye iminyaka.
  • Unokukhetha ukuhlawula ngezahlulelo, nokuba kungakho ngemali yotyalo-mali okanye ngokuthenga kunye nokuthengisa izabelo kwimarike yemasheya. Kuxhomekeke kwingaphambili lakho kwicandelo lotyalo-mali kunye neprofayili oyivezayo njengomtyali mali omncinci nophakathi.
  • Yenye indlela abanokuthi bakhethe ngayo bonke abathathe umhlala-phantsi kwaye apho kuya kufuneka kuphela yiba nengxowa yokonga imali eyakhiwe ukutyhubela iminyaka. Ukusuka kwixabiso eliphakathi ukuya kwixabiso eliphezulu ngokuqinisekileyo. Akukho mida kuyilo lwale modeli kutyalo-mali.

Okokugqibela, ikuvumela ukuba ukhethe kuluhlu olubanzi lwamathuba okuphucula isixa sepenshoni. Ayothusi into yokuba inzuzo yezi zahlulo ishukuma kuluhlu olubanzi kakhulu oluhambayo ukusuka kwi-3% ukuya kwi-10%. Unokukhetha ezininzi apho unokukhetha khona ukongezwa kwepenshini yomhlala-phantsi.

Izibonelelo zepenshini ezinganikeli galelo

Kuzo zonke, olu didi lwezongezelelo zemivuzo lunokusetyenziswa kuzo zombini iipenshini ezinegalelo nezinganikeliyo. Ngale ndlela, kufanele kukhunjulwe ukuba ezi zamva nje beziseSpain. Kuba kucatshangelwa nguMthetho 26/1990, we-20 kaDisemba, apho izibonelelo ezinganikeli galelo zimiselweyo kuKhuseleko lwezeNtlalo kubemi abakwiimfuno, nokuba khange babe negalelo kule nkqubo, okanye khange benze ixesha elide ngokwaneleyo Unobangela welungelo kwimirhumo yomhlala phantsi. Kodwa kwimeko apho kuya kubakho ipenshini esezantsi kakhulu engadluli kwi-euro ezingama-400 ngenyanga nganye.

Kwelinye icala, kufanele kuqatshelwe ukuba kwezi meko kuyakufuneka ukuba abo badla umhlala-phantsi babe nesongezelelo kwipenshini enganikeli mali. Kwaye inokuqhubeka ngokugqibeleleyo kwezi modeli zotyalo-mali sizichazileyo kuwe kweli nqaku kwaye zinobudlelwane ngokuthe ngqo ekuhlawuleni izabelo. Zombini kwiingxowa mali zothengiso nasekuthengweni nasekuthengisweni kwezabelo kwiimarike zezabelo. Olona luvo lusebenzayo ongaqala ngalo kwezi zihlandlo zichanekileyo. Ukuba ne ingeniso esisigxina kunye eqinisekisiweyo inyanga nenyanga ukusukela ngexesha lokuthatha umhlalaphantsi.

Abaxhamli bepenshini

mdala

Enye yeemeko ekufuneka ithathelwe ingqalelo xa kuqokelelwa ipenshoni yomhlala-phantsi engenagalelo yile inento yokwenza neemfuno zokuyifumana. Ewe, ipenshini enganikeli mali inikwa abo bantu baseSpain kwimeko yomhlala phantsi okanye yokukhubazeka nakwimeko yemfuno, abadibana noluhlu lweempawu ezizodwa. Enye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo yile nokanye babe nengeniso eyoneleyo. Kucingelwa ukuba kukho ukungabikho kwengeniso xa umvuzo ofumanekayo ungaphantsi kwe-5.136,60 euro ngonyaka. Ngale ndlela, baya kuba nakho ukufikelela kwintlawulo yale pension.

Ngelixa ngokuchaseneyo, ipenshini enganikeliyo ayizukuvumela ukonwabela, njengoko kusengqiqweni ukucinga, ubuncinci bamandla okuthenga ngeli xesha libaluleke kangaka kubomi babemi. Apho kuyakufuneka ngokupheleleyo ukuba incediswe yinkqubo yokuhanjiswa kwemali, kodwa ilungiswe kwaye iqinisekiswe inyanga nenyanga. Nokuba incinci kangakanani le nto, ukuba nje umda othile wengeniso oselungelweni lomhlala-phantsi ongadluli awugqithi. Kujikeleze, ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi, i-7.000 okanye i-8.000 euro ngonyaka. Oku kuya kuba yinto ekufuneka abatyali zimali abancinci nabaphakathi bahambelane nayo ukuba bakhetha le nkqubo yemivuzo kwiminyaka yegolide.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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