Amazwe avelisa ioyile

Amazwe avelisa ioyile

I-oyile yigolide emnyama yehlabathi. I-oyile ihambisa umhlaba: ngayo ipetroli, iplastiki, kunye nezinye izinto ezininzi ezenziwe. Nangona zininzi amazwe avelisa ioyile, ISpain ayililo ilizwe elivelisa ioyile, okanye ubuncinci hayi ngobuninzi, kwaye kufuneka inikezele ngenxalenye enkulu yohlahlo-lwabiwo mali lonyaka ngamnye ukuthengwa kwayo, ihlupheka ngenxa yokungazinzi kwamaxabiso ayo.

Umzekelo, kule minyaka mibini idlulileyo Amaxabiso eoyile abethe kakhulu kubangela ukonga okukhulu kumazwe angaphandle anje ngeSpain ... kodwa ukuba ayonyukile, amaxabiso ayonyuka kwikhonkco aqala ngepetroli kwaye abangela ifuthe kubomi belizwe.

Ixabiso leoyile libekwe njani

Ixabiso le-oyile libekwe kumgqomo ngamnye, endaweni yeelitha okanye iilitha, kwaye kuba ioyile ilungile, ixabiso layo lisetelwe kubonelelo nakwimfuno.

Yonke le nto yaqala ngo-1960, xa kwinyathelo laseVenezuela, amazwe amahlanu, elinye lawona makhulu ehlabathini, ahlangana eBaghdad kwaye aseka Umbutho waMazwe aThumela iiPetroli. Okwangoku inamazwe alishumi elinesithathu, amele iipesenti ezingama-45 zemveliso zehlabathi.

Amazwe avelisa ioyile

Lo mbutho ulawula, ngokusekwe kwimveliso yawo, inqanaba leoyile emhlabeni ukuseta ixabiso kwaye ungavumeli ukungazinzi kwalo kuqhube ilizwe, njengoko kwenzekayo kwiminyaka ye-70 ngengxaki yeoyile eUnited States.

Kwelinye icala, amazwe angaphandle kombutho, anje ngeRussia, alawula imveliso kunye namaxabiso ngokudibeneyo, ahlala esebenzisa amazwe abaxhasi babo njengesixhobo soqoqosho, esenza okufanayo ngerhasi. Emva koko siza kubona leliphi elona lizwe libalulekileyo elivelisa ioyiles.

Amazwe aphambili avelisa ioyile

Amazwe aphambili eoyile Ayingawo kanye amalungu ombutho wangaphambili, kodwa ayinyani.

Uluhlu lwamazwe aphambili avelisa ioyile awahlali efanayo, enyanisweni, kutshanje iVenezuela, elinye lamazwe aphakathi 'kwabalishumi abaphezulu' liwele kwishumi elinesithathu, lingumba wengxoxo-mpikiswano nokuba ingunobangela okanye luphawu ingxaki yaseVenezuela.

Ngokwolwazi oluvela kwi-CIA, sibonisa ezona ziphambili amazwe avelisa ioyile zehlabathi. 

Khuweyithi

Lilizwe leshumi ngobukhulu elivelisa i-oli emhlabeni. Imveliso yayo ijikeleze i-2,7 yezigidi zemiphanda yeoyile, kwaye imele malunga neepesenti ezintathu zemveliso iyonke yelizwe. Yaphathwa yimfazwe ngenxa "yophando" olwenziwa nguSaddam Hussein kwilizwe ngo-3, imfazwe edumileyo kwiPersian Gulf.

Oovimba bayo baqikelelwa ukuba banethuba leminyaka eyi-100, besisiseko sokufumana umvuzo kwilizwe.

Mekhsikho

Mekhsikho Lilizwe leshumi elinanye elithumela ngaphandle kwihlabathi, kwaye ivelisa malunga nezigidi ezingama-2,85 zemigqomo, enethemba elikhulu ngenxa yohlaziyo ilizwe elihamba kulo kunye nokufunyanwa kwemithombo yeoyile enovimba omkhulu kwixesha elizayo.

Ingeniso evela kuthumelo lweoyile kumazwe angaphandle imele i-10% yengeniso yelizwe iyonke.

Iran

I-Iran ivelisa imiphanda ezizigidi ezi-3.4, kwaye siyabulela koovimba bayo kunye nemithombo engasetyenziswanga, ithathwa njengelizwe elibizwa ngokuba 'ligunya elinamandla amakhulu'.

Ezo zi-3.4 zezigidi zemiphanda zimele i-5,1% yeoyile yonke ehamba kwihlabathi yonke imihla. Imali eveliswe koku kuthunyelwa kwelinye ilizwe imele i-60% yengeniso iyonke yeIran.

Kwaye ngaphandle kokubala koovimba bayo obuqinisekisa isixa esikhulu semali, kungekuphela ngeoyile, kodwa ngombane kunye negesi. I-Iran iya kunika okuninzi ukuze ithethe.

E-United Arab Emirates

I-United Arab Emirates yimanyano ebekwe e-Arabia eyenziwe yi-Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaima, Sarja kunye ne-Umm al-Qaywayn.

Ngokudibeneyo bavelisa malunga ne-3.5 yezigidi zemiphanda, ikakhulu eveliswa ngu-Abu Dhabi, eDubai naseSarja, amaziko aphambili okukhutshwa kolwelo e-United Arab Emirates.

Banoovimba abali-100 ezigidi zemigqomo. Banemali eninzi enkosi kuyo kangangokuba bayazivumela ukuba bahlangane.

IDubai, ngaphandle kwayo yonke into, ilungiselela ukuzikhulula kwioyile kwaye isekele uqoqosho lwayo kancinci nangaphantsi kulwelo nangaphezulu kukhenketho nakushishino.

Irakh

I-Iraq yohlwaywa ngokuqatha ziingxaki ze-geopolotiki, ziingxabano zangaphakathi, i-Al-Qaeda, uhlaselo lwakutshanje lweDaesh, kunye nelizwe elihlwaywe ngongenelelo lomkhosi oluhlala ngaphezulu kweminyaka elishumi.

Ngaphandle koku, i-Iraq Lilizwe elinendawo yesihlanu yokugcina ioyile emhlabeni, uninzi kumacandelo angahambelaniyo, kwaye ngaphandle koku, ivelisa malunga nezigidi ezine zemiphanda yeoyile, ebonelela nge-4% yamandla elizwe kunye ne-94% yengeniso yelizwe iyonke.

Kulindelwe ikamva elihle kwilizwe xa lisombulula iingxaki zalo.

Canada

Elinye ilizwe laseMntla Melika kuluhlu yamazwe abaluleke kakhulu avelisa ioyile.

I-Canada ine-0,5% kuphela yabemi behlabathi, kodwa ivelisa ngaphezulu kwe-5% yeoyile ehamba emhlabeni.

Ivelisa malunga nemiphanda ezizigidi ezi-4,5, kwaye oovimba bayo bafikelela kwizigidi ezingama-180.000, kuba yindawo yokugcina ioyile yesithathu ngobukhulu emhlabeni.

Ingxaki yaseCanada kukuba uninzi loovimba bayo bakwimigodi yetar, edibanisa ukukhutshwa kwayo. Nje ukuba iteknoloji yenze iteknoloji yokukhupha ibe yexabiso eliphantsi, imveliso ekrwada yaseCanada iya kukhula.

iTshayina

Imveliso ekrwada yaseTshayina ibinyuka ngokuthe chu kule minyaka ingamashumi amahlanu idlulileyo, ithathe ukukhula okungalindelekanga kunye nokukhula okukhulu kule minyaka ilishumi elinesihlanu idlulileyo, ngenxa yokuvulwa kwezoqoqosho okuphunyezwe ngurhulumente.

Senza malunga nezigidi ezi-4.6 zemigqomo ye-crude, kodwa njengoko ukusetyenziswa kwayo kukhohlakele, nangona kunjalo, iyaqhubeka nokuba lilizwe elingena gwenxa, ngakumbi elivela eRashiya nakwamanye amazwe aseAsia nawaseArabhu.

Oovimba bayo abathobekanga, ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi, iibhiliyoni ezingama-20, kodwa kulindeleke ukuba enkosi ngokuqhekeka (ngesanti kubunzulu baphantsi komhlaba) imveliso kunye noovimba bayo buya kukhula kakhulu.

Russia

I-Russia yinto enkulu kuyo yonke into kwaye ngeoyile besingazukufumana isithende sayo se-Achilles.

Bakhe Izigidi ezili-11 zemiphanda yeoyile imele i-13-14% yetotali iyonke ekrwada ehamba emhlabeni.

Oovimba bayo ngabesithathu ngobukhulu elizweni, ngaphandle kokubala zonke izinto ezingafunekiyo ezifihlwe phantsi komkhenkce waseSiberia nasemantla eRashiya, kwiArctic, naphantsi komkhenkce ongqindilili noqinileyo.

Masikhumbule ukuba iRussia imele, kwingingqi, isinye kwisithandathu somhlaba wonke, esenza ukuba sibone ukuba ayizisebenzisi ngokupheleleyo iidipozithi zayo.

ISaudi Arabia

Kude kube kutshanje ibingoyena mvelisi mkhulu ekrwada emhlabeni, iphantse yaba zizigidi ezili-12 zemiphanda yeoyile. Oovimba bayo abangcolileyo, bebodwa, zimele i-5% yezinto esele zikho namhlanje emhlabeni, kwaye inxenye enkulu, ayikasetyenziswa.

Ngenxa yokuba imveliso yayo inciphile ngenxa yezinye iintlobo zamandla kunye ne-fuels, yaphulukana nendawo yayo yokuqala.

EUnited States

Enkosi ngokuqhekeka kunye nokunyusa ukuxhaphazwa kweoyile, ilizwe lesithathu eMntla Melika likhokela kwinqanaba lehlabathi phantse i-14 yezigidigidi. Ngenxa yotyalo-mali olukhulu kwitekhnoloji, baye bakwazi ukumilisela iindlela zangoku zokukhupha krwada, ezinjengentlabathi yetela kunye ne-shale.

Nangona ingoyena mvelisi mkhulu wezinto ezingcolileyo emhlabeni, banengxaki ye-China: bangenisa isixa esikhulu semfucuza eMexico naseCanada, amanye amazwe amabini amakhulu eoyile, njengoko ibango labo liqhubeka nokudlula kumthamo wabo wemveliso.

Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Ukutyala imali kwioyile: eyona ntengiso isebenzayo ngo-2016

Amazwe aneendawo zokugcina ioyile ezinkulu emhlabeni

Amazwe avelisa ioyile

Hayi ukuba lilizwe elivelisa i-oyile kukwenza ube ngcono, mhlawumbi sinokubona amazwe avelisa i-oyile ngombono omkhulu: jonga ukuba ngawaphi na, ukongeza kwimveliso enkulu, indawo yokugcina ebaqinisekisa kweso sikhundla kunye nozinzo ikamva.

Amazwe aneendawo zokugcina ioyile ezinkulu emhlabeni

(amanani akwiibhiliyoni)

  1. IVenezuela - 297,6
  2. ISaudi Arabia - 267,9
  3. ECanada - 173,1
  4. I-Iran-154,6
  5. I-Iraq-141,4
  6. I-Kuwait - 104
  7. I-United Arab Emirates - i-97,8
  8. Rhashiya - 80
  9. I-Libya - 48
  10. ENigeria - 37,2
  11. IKazakhstan - 30
  12. Qatar - 25,380
  13. IUnited States yaseMelika - 20,680
  14. I-China-17,300
  15. IBrazil - 13,150
  16. IAlgeria - 12,200
  17. IAngola - 10,470
  18. EMexico - 10,260
  19. I-Ecuador-8,240
  20. IAzerbaijan - 7

Abathumeli beoyile abaziintloko

Kuyimfuneko ukwazi ukuba yintoni amazwe athe athatha isigqibo sokuthumela ngaphandle kakhulu, kwaye isiseko, ngokusebenzayo, uqoqosho lwesizwe kwioyile. Sibona iimeko ezinje ngeIran, iMexico okanye iVenezuela apho ukwehla, njengokunye esiye sakufumana kwezi nyanga, kuchaphazela kakhulu uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali.

abavelisi beoyile

Ngolu luhlu lokugqibela uya kuba nakho ukubona ngcono impilo yamazwe kwaye leliphi elona lilawula ngokungafunekiyo.

  • E-Afrika: IAlgeria, iAngola, iLibya neNigeria.
  • KuMbindi Mpuma sine-Saudi Arabia, i-United Arab Emirates, i-Iraq ne-Kuwait.
  • EMzantsi Melika sine-Ecuador neVenezuela.

Kwaye okokugqibela, abavelisi abakhulu kunye nabathumela ngaphandle, abangamalungu e-OPEC, sine Canada, Sudan, Mexico, United Kingdom, Norway, Russia ne Oman.

Ngaba uluhlu lwe amazwe avelisa ioyile ixesha elidlulele? Kuyenzeka kodwa uninzi lwezo sizibonileyo ziye zangxala itshathi yemveliso iminyaka ngenxa yoko utshintsho aluzukwenzeka nangaliphi na ixesha kungekudala.

Amazwe aphambili atya ioyile

Kwelinye icala elichaseneyo nengqekembe, sinamazwe atya eyona miphanda mininzi mihla le. Kwezinye iimeko, njenge-United States, nangona iphakathi kwabavelisi beoyile abakhulu, isadinga ukungenisa ioyile ngaphezulu kunokuba ivelisa. Kungenxa yokuba ibango lalo likhulu kunemveliso elinokuyihambisa. Ukubona kufutshane ngakumbi kwaye sinoluvo lwehlabathi malunga nale nto, sinokubona kolu luhlu lulandelayo ukusetyenziswa kwelizwe ngalinye, kunye nokusetyenziswa komndilili weoyile kwiyunithi nganye yabemi.

ukusetyenziswa kweoyile kwamazwe ngemini kumawaka emigqomo

Ngedatha efunyenwe ngo-2019, ngo-2018, ezi bezi Imigqomo (ngamawaka) esetyenzisiweyo ngosuku kwilizwe ngalinye:

  1. IUnited States: i-20.456
  2. I-China: 13.525
  3. India: 5.156
  4. IJapan: 3.854
  5. ISaudi Arabia: 3.724
  6. IRashiya: 3.228
  7. IBrazil: 3.081
  8. UMzantsi Korea: 2.793
  9. ECanada: 2.447
  10. EJamani: 2.321
  11. I-Iran: 1.879
  12. EMexico: 1.812
  13. I-Indonesia: 1.785
  14. I-UK: 1.618
  15. EFransi: 1.607
  16. IThailand: 1.478
  17. ISingapore: 1.449
  18. I-Spain: 1.335
  19. ElamaTaliyane: 1.253
  20. IAustralia: 1.094

Zintoni eziphembelela lo mahluko?

Kwelinye icala ngu inani labemi kwaye kwelinye inqanaba lobutyebi belizwe ngalinye. Apha singayichaza ngengeniso yomntu ngamnye. Oku kuchaza ukuba kutheni i-United States, ngaphandle kwelona lizwe linabantu abaninzi, itya ioyile eninzi (malunga nemigqomo engama-22 ngemini ngomhlali ngamnye). Ngapha koko, abemi bayo batya ngokomndilili ngaphezulu kokuphindwe kabini kunaleyo umntu anokuyitya ISpeyin (malunga neebhare ezili-10 ngosuku ngomhlali ngamnye). Kungenxa yoko le nto amazwe anabemi abaninzi kakhulu kodwa enengeniso ephantsi kakhulu yomntu ngamnye njenge China itya ioyile encinci kuneMelika.

Umzekelo, i-China kunye ne-India zinabantu abafanayo, i-India inabantu abambalwa. Nangona kunjalo, inqanaba lobutyebi base China liphezulu, yiyo loo nto ukusetyenziswa kweoyile kwakuphezulu.

Umgqomo ngamnye weendleko zeoyile ngokomyinge kwinqanaba langoku elimalunga ne-55 yeedola, umndilili onokudluliselwa kunyaka ka-2018.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.

  1.   UJose Angel Quintanilla D sitsho

    Uthini umhla wokupapashwa kweli nqaku?

    1.    inqwelana sitsho

      Kuthunyelwe nguSusana Maria Urbano Mateos ngoJulayi 6, 2016, 11:16 kusasa

  2.   UDANNY DANIEL sitsho

    Mva kwemini, uya kuba nakho ukundinceda ngeenkcukacha zeoyile ekrwada enikezelwa ngamazwe athumela ioyile.

  3.   I-SUZEL sitsho

    Ndiyathetha ukuba iphelisiwe kubunzulu bomhlaba kukupholisa kunye nokunciphisa iiplate zeetectonic ukunqanda iinyikima kunye nokufudumeza komhlaba umbono wam ngaphakathi kokungazi

  4.   UAgasine sitsho

    Inqaku elilunge kakhulu