Uluhlu lomthetho wotshintsho lwemozulu lubhalwe njani kwintengiso yemasheya?

kutshintsha kwe mozulu Elinye lamanyathelo acamngcwe ngumthetho wotshintsho lwemozulu kukuthintela ukuthengiswa kwedizili, ipetroli kunye neemoto ezixubileyo ngo-2040. Esi sicelo sikarhulumente sibandakanyiwe kuyilo olusebenzayo lwalo mmiselo ukuphucula okusingqongileyo kwaye Kucwangcisiwe Ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwe-CO20 ngama-2% ngo-2030 kwaye ubuncinci ama-70% ombane anokuvuseleleka. Esinye seziphumo kwisicelo sayo siya kubandakanya ukuphucula imoto yombane ukwenzakalisa amandla emveli ngakumbi.

"Ukusukela ngonyaka ka-2040, ukubhaliswa kunye nokuthengiswa kweenqwelo zabakhweli kunye nezithuthi ezikhanyayo zorhwebo ezikhutshwe ngqo yi-carbon dioxide ayizukuvunyelwa eSpain," ngokolwazi olukhutshwe liSebe lezoPhuhliso lweNdalo. Ukuza kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokuba esinye sezona zicwangciso zibalaseleyo ziziphathamandla zilele ekuqhubekekiseni phambili ukufakelwa kobuncinane be-3.000 MW yamandla ngonyaka phakathi kowama-2020 nowama-2030. Isicwangciso samandla usempilweni ixesha elide.

Ngayiphi na imeko, inkqubo yezi mpawu ibandakanya uthotho lwe ngqo ngqo kwiimarike zezabelo. Apho ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo kukho abanye abaxhamli kunye nabanye abaphulukana namanyathelo anjalo kwaye ungawasebenzisa xa uthatha izikhundla kwiimarike zezemali. Nangona kunjalo, awuyi kuqaphela iimpembelelo zayo kwixesha elifutshane ubuncinci kuwo onke amandla alo. Amacandelo anxulumene namandla, umbane ngakumbi i-oyile iya kuba lelona lichaphazeleka kula manyathelo akhankanywe apha ngasentla.

Umthetho wokutshintsha kwemozulu

i petroli Ewe, azizondaba zimnandi ezi kwiinkampani ezinxulunyaniswe necandelo elinamandla le- petroleum. Akumangalisi ukuba abathengi babe nokuxhomekeka kancinci kule asethi yemali ukuba bathathe iimoto zabo kuba oko lo mthetho uzama ukufezekisa kukukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa kwemoto yombane ngaphezulu kwezinye izinto ezithile. Ngapha koko, enye yezona ndaba zibalulekileyo kulo nyaka mtsha siwuqalileyo ubambile kukuba umenzi weemoto uVolvo ubhengeze ukuba ukusukela ngo-2019 uzokuthengisa iimoto zombane kuphela. Olu lutshintsho olukhawulezileyo kumgca wokushishina, kunye neziphumo ezibanzi kwiimarike zezemali.

Kwelinye icala, ayinakulityalwa ukuba omnye wabakhulu becandelo, abanjengoToyota, ubhengeze kwiinyanga ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo ukuba izakuyeka thengisa izithuthi zedizili eYurophu. Le nto iya kukhokelela kukonyuka kurhwebo lweemoto zombane ukusukela ngoku. Nangona ihlala isonjululwe phantsi kobuphi ubungakanani obuya kuyenziwa kwiinyanga ezizayo okanye kwiminyaka. Ngale ndlela, iinkampani ezahlukeneyo zombane ziququzelela umsebenzi ngokwenza iindawo ezahlukeneyo zokugcwalisa ngokutsha olu didi lwezithuthi ezingangcolisi imeko-bume.

Iya kuchaphazela ixabiso leenkampani zeoyile

Iziphumo zokuqala zokusetyenziswa kwe-ley yotshintsho lwemozulu kukuba inzuzo kwiinkampani zeoyile ingaphantsi kunangoku. Oku kuya kudlulela kwinqanaba elikhulu okanye elincinci njengoko ukuxabiswa kwamaxabiso abo kulungiswa ngokususela ekunciphiseni okufunyanwa yile asethi ebalulekileyo yemali. Kwiimalike zezemali zamashishini ezemali zamashishini ezingenanzala emisiweyo, eyona ilahlekileyo kule nyathelo yamva nje iya kuba yinkampani yeoyile Repsol eya kuthi ikwazi ukunciphisa amanqanaba amaxabiso ayo kwixesha elifutshane neliphakathi. Xa ngeli xesha ixabiso lalo likuluhlu olubanzi kakhulu oluhamba phakathi kwe-13 ukuya kwi-16 ye-euro ngesabelo ngasinye. Kodwa xa ukusetyenziswa kwabo kuncipha, izibonelelo zabo ziya kuthi ngokuhle zinciphise kakhulu, nokuba babe kumanqanaba asezantsi kakhulu kulawo aphawulwe ngalo mzuzu.

Into entsonkothe ​​ngakumbi yimeko ngokubhekisele kwiimarike zamanye amazwe apho ubukho bezizwe ngezizwe zeoyile busebenza kakhulu. Kodwa banokutyhola ukubethwa okunzima kwicandelo ngohlengahlengiso kumaxabiso abo. Ukusuka kule meko ngokubanzi, elona nyathelo lilumkileyo kubatyali mali abancinci nabaphakathi liya kubandakanya ukungathathi izikhundla kweli candelo. Kukho abanye abangcono amathemba okukhula kwaye ngaphandle kwento yokuba ixabiso leoyile ekrwada likwelinye lawona manqanaba aphezulu kule minyaka idlulileyo. Apho ixabiso lomgqomo lisondele kakhulu kwiidola ezingama-80 umphanda.

Ishishini lombane liza kwanda

iinkozo Ngokuchasene noko, omnye wabaxhamli abakhulu beli nyathelo ziinkampani ezikwicandelo lombane eziza kubona imveliso yazo inyuka ukusukela ngoku. Ingakumbi ngokwemigaqo ejolise kwixesha eliphakathi nelide kwaye ekufuneka ibonakalisiwe kwi ixabiso lesicatshulwa. Oku ubuncinci kwithiyori kuba le nto ixhomekeke kwezinye izinto ezichaphazela ukuhambelana kwayo. Ngale ndlela, ayinakulityalwa ukuba ufakelo lombane osisiseko esimalunga ne-megawatts ezingama-3.000 (MW) ngonyaka kwizibonelelo zemveliso zombane ziya kukhuthazwa.

ESpain, nkampani olungele lo mlinganiso kukhuseleko lwendalo I-Endesa, i-Iberdrola kunye ne-Natural Natural yegesi. Okwangoku, kwaye ngaphandle komzuzu olungileyo ukuba ii-equity zihamba, abalungenisi olu tshintsho kwiimodeli zabo zeshishini. Nangona bonke bekwindawo ephezulu yamaxabiso abo kwaye abanye abanjengoRed Eléctrica Española bade bazibeka kwinani lokunyuka simahla kwezi veki zidlulileyo. Enye yeenzuzo kubatyali mali abancinci nabaphakathi ukusukela ngoku ukuthengwa kokuzibeka kukucaca okukhethekileyo kwiphepha nasekuthengiseni.

Kwixesha eliphakathi nelide

Ngayiphi na imeko, la manyathelo aseburhulumenteni kufuneka ajonge indlela yokuthenga kwiminyaka embalwa. Ngale nto utyalo-mali kwiinkampani zombane lunokuba yinzuzo kakhulu kule migaqo esisigxina. Kwelinye icala, ayinakulityalwa ukuba bahambisa i- Isahlulo phakathi kwabanini zabelo unesisa kakhulu. Ngenzuzo esisigxina kunye eqinisekisiweyo ephakathi kwe-5% kunye ne-7%, kuxhomekeke kwinkampani edwelisiweyo. Ukwenza ingeniso emiselweyo ngaphakathi okwahlukileyo, nokuba kwenzeka ntoni kwiimarike zezabelo. Into eluncedo kakhulu ngamaxesha obuthathaka obukhulu kwiimalike zezemali zokulingana.

Ngale ndlela, enye yeendlela ezizezinye zokwenza ukonga kunenzuzo ukusukela ngoku ukuya phambili imelwe ziinkampani zombane, nazo ezinemodeli yeshishini ebisoloko izinzile. Ukuya kwinqanaba lokuqwalaselwa njenge ixabiso lokhuselo ngamaxesha okungazinzi okukhulu kunye nokungazinzi kwiimarike zesitokhwe. Unokwakha ipotifoliyo elandelayo yotyalo-mali kunye nezinye zezi mali ukuze ufumane imbuyekezo, kodwa hayi kwixesha elifutshane. Ngomngcipheko omncinci ekuvezweni okuphuculweyo ukusuka kumanyathelo amatsha ngurhulumente wesizwe.

Amaqhinga okuphumeza

Njengomphumo wale meko equka ukuphunyezwa kwe-ley yotshintsho lwemozulu kukuvalwa kwentengiso yedizili, ipetroli kunye neemoto ezingumxube ngo-2040, akusayi kubakho khetho ngaphandle kokutshintsha izicwangciso-mali zotyalo-mali. Ukutshintsha iinkampani ezinxulunyaniswe neoyile ekrwada ziinkampani zombane nangaphaya kwezinye izinto zobuchwephesha kwaye nakwimbono esisiseko. Ngenjongo yokuba kwiminyaka embalwa unako Yongeza imali otyale imali kwimarike yemasheya ukusukela ngoku. Ayothusi into yokuba le yeyona njongo yakho iphambili kwezi zihlandlo zichanekileyo.

Enye injongo kutyalo-mali lwakho mayibhekiswe kwi Ukupheliswa kwalo naluphi na uhlobo lomngcipheko ekusebenzeni kwakho kwimarike yemasheya kwaye kule ngqondo akukho nto ibhetele kunokuba ubaleke kwiinkampani zeoyile. Ngokukodwa kwiintshukumo ezenzelwe amagama amade. Banokutshintshwa licandelo lombane elinokuthi lixhamle kule ndawo intsha kwindalo esingqongileyo. Kwelinye icala, kufanele ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba urhulumente okhoyo uzimisele ukuguqula, ngendlela ekhethekileyo, imiba ethile yocwangciso lwenethiwekhi yokuhambisa umbane. Oku kuya kuba yinto entsha yokukhuthaza iimfuno zeenkampani zombane.

Izixhobo zemali

utyalo mali Ngelixa kwelinye icala, uninzi lweenkampani zombane khange ziyithathe le meko, oko akuthethi ukuba abayi kuyenza kule minyaka izayo. Nangona amathandabuzo amakhulu ahlala phakathi xa uza kuyenza ukuze ibekwe kwaye Ukuqokelela ukunyuka kwamaxabiso yezenzo. Ngokwalo icala, uLawulo lukaRhulumente Jikelele lubonisa ukuba "ngekhe yenze utyalomali olutsha kwizabelo okanye kwizixhobo zemali umsebenzi wazo ubandakanya ukuxhaphaza, ukukhupha, ukucokisa okanye ukuqhubekeka kwezibaso."

Ayilolize, into enkulu elindelwe ngabatyali zimali kukuba la manyathelo ayabanceda ukuhambisa utyalomali lwabo ngendlela efanelekileyo nangokuhambelana nemidla yabo. Ekupheleni kosuku yintoni malunga neli xesha lokuphucula izikhundla zabo kwizabelo ngaphakathi kwexesha elifanelekileyo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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