Yorhwebo okanye yorhwebo: Amaxabiso, impembelelo, amandla

Yorhwebo okanye Impahla eluhlaza

   Yorhwebo okanye Impahla eluhlaza

Ngaba silifundile okanye saliva ilizwi  yorhwebo ngaphandle kokuqonda ngqo ukuba yintoni malunga? Ligama elisuka kuLwimi lwesiNgesi, elisetyenziswe kwisilaydi soqoqosho nakwilizwe lotyalo-mali amaxesha amaninzi njenge ntonye nezinto ekrwada. I binzana ikontrakthi yexesha elizayo, ikwanxulunyaniswa nomxholo onxulumene nesihloko ekuthethwa ngaso.

Ngumxholo onomdla ekufuneka uphandwe kwaye ulandelwe.

Igama yorhwebo  ikwanxulumene ngokusondeleyo ne  yorhwebo. Ngokwandiswa kwe iingxowa zempahla ekrwada, iikhonsepthi ezintsha ngeli gama zavela.

Imveliso yezinto zokwenza imveliso iguqulela ekufumaneni ubutyebi belizwe okanye ingingqi. Ngokubanzi, zizibonelelo ezigcweleyo kwindawo ethile hayi kwezinye, zizisa umahluko phakathi kweendawo zomhlaba ezinazo.

Nangona kunjalo, xa uhlanga Kuxhomekeke kwimveliso yezinto zokwenza imveliso  ngokusisiseko okanye ngokuyintloko njengomthombo wengeniso kuqoqosho lwayo, inokuchazwa njenge ukubuyela umva kwezoqoqosho. Uqoqosho lwelizwe ukuze lomelele nalo kufuneka lubalasele kwimpahla eyenziweyo, icandelo leenkonzo njl.

Iimpahla ezingekasilwa banexabiso elongeziweyo, bakwazisa a Ukuguquguquka okukhulu kwamaxabiso akho, kubangelwa kukunqaba kwayo nokuxhomekeka kwayo okanye impembelelo kwizinto ezinje ngemozulu.

Ikamva lezemali Bavumela ukukhuselwa kwixabiso lokungazinzi kwexabiso. Abo bangabavelisi bezixhobo eziluhlaza bazikhusela ekuweni okungaqhelekanga malunga noku ngokuphuhlisa ikontrakthi yekamva, Ukuqinisekisa amaxabiso athile ngaphambi kokuba kuveliswe izinto ezingavuthi. Olu hlobo lothethathethwano lukhona ngaphezulu kwenkulungwane.

Kwiimarike zemali, ezi asethi zinokutyalwa ngendlela efanayo nakwezinye iiasethi, ngaphandle kwesi sizathu ukuba zibe zezabanini bazo. Ezinye izinto ezidwelisiweyo kwezi marike zezemali yirhasi yendalo, ioyile ekrwada, iswekile, igolide, ingqolowa, njl.

Ukuyenza ibekhona inzuzo xa ixhaphazwaAbo bangabavelisi bezinto kufuneka babhenele kwiindlela ezithile ukufezekisa oku. Utyalomali olukhulu lokuqala luhlala lusenziwa ukufikelela kuxhaphazo lwabo.

Ukuchaza igama elithi uMveliso

Imveliso eluhlaza ilungile iya kuguqulwa ngexesha lenkqubo yemveliso ezimisele ukuyiguqula ibe ngumthengi olungileyo, kungenjalo ayinakusetyenziswa ngokuthe ngqo.

Yorhwebo okanye Impahla eluhlaza

Zizinto ezisondele kakhulu kwimeko yazo yendalo ngaphambi kokuba zixhatshazwe. Baza kuhlala kwindawo Inyathelo eliphambili kwimixokelelwano yokuvelisa eya kuvelisa amanqaku okusetyenziswa.

Izixhobo zendalo, ezinje ngamandla okanye amahlathi, zinokuhlelwa njengemizekelo yezinto zokwenza imveliso.

Uhlobo lwe ukwahlulahlula ukwahlula kunokuba ngokwemvelaphi yayo:

  • ImifunoImbewu, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno, iinkuni, iselulosi, ukutya okuziinkozo njl.
  • Ifosili: I-oyile kunye negesi yendalo.
  • Isilwanyana: Isikhumba, uboya, inyama.
  • Isimbiwa: Ubhedu, isinyithi, irhonya njl.

Kukho ezinye iintlobo ezahlukeneyo kunye neefom zokuhlelwa.

Abaphembeleli kuqoqosho lweentlanga

Kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba ezi zibonelelo zinokuba nazo kwimpilo yezoqoqosho lwelizwe.

Makhe sihlalutye isizwe njengomzekelo: iArgentina:

Lilizwe elinobutyebi kwizinto ezingafaniyo. Igolide, ubhedu, isilivere, i-lithium, i-potassium, iinkuni, iswekile, ingqolowa, ingqolowa, isoya, iziqhamo, iihydrocarbon.

Ipesenti ye-GDP eveliswe licandelo loshishino lwezolimo ngo-2015 yayiyi-30%.

Iziphumo kumgaqo-nkqubo welizwe

Ixabiso lezinto ezisetyenziswayo kumaxesha amaninzi banefuthe elibonakalayo ipolitiki yelizwe. Kungafikelela kwinqanaba lokuba umgqatswa wokuba ngumongameli okanye esinye isikhundla esibalulekileyo kufuneka anike ingqalelo kwinto eyenzekayo kweli candelo nakwinto ethunyelwa kwisizwe sakhe, njengoko oko kungamxabisa kakhulu kwindlela yakhe yezopolitiko.

KuMbindi Mpuma, umzekelo, izinto ezingavunyelwanga ikakhulu ziphambili ngokubhekisele kwingeniso yoorhulumente. Ewe ke, xa ujonga oku, kucetywa amaphulo ezopolitiko malunga nalo mbandela, kunye nezithembiso ezibandakanyiweyo. Ukuba amaxabiso ehla okanye enyuka kabukhali, impembelelo inokubaluleka.

Yintoni enokutshintsha isithembiso?

Yorhwebo okanye Impahla eluhlaza

Imiba yoqoqosho olukhulu ihlala ichaphazela unikezelo lwempahla ekrwada. Ngokufanayo, ezinye izizathu ezingakumbi zinokubakho.

Ubhedu, umzekelo, into eluhlaza ekrwada, kutshanje ichaphazele iingxaki kwiindawo eziphambili zokukhupha kwihlabathi liphela. Oonobangela ibe kukungqubana phakathi kwabavelisi kunye namaqela ezopolitiko, uqhankqalazo olwenzekileyo, iimeko zemozulu, njl. Konke oku kubangela Ukonakala kwemveliso okwexeshana, ezikhokelela ngokuthe ngqo ekunyukeni kwexabiso lezi zinto zorhwebo kwimarike yamanye amazwe.

Ukwenza umzekelo kwakhona: Ukuba, ngezizathu zokusingqongileyo, i-China ithathe isigqibo sokunciphisa izinga lokuvelisa kwizityalo ezenza isinyithi, umbuzo onokuthi ube yinyani, ixabiso lawo linokuchaphazeleka ngokuqinisekileyo ziindaba zolu hlobo.

Iziganeko zeli zimbiwa zikhulu kwihlabathi liphela, kwaye isicelo okanye imfuno yayo inxulumene ngokusondeleyo notyalo-mali kwimisebenzi yoluntu kunye nakwiziseko zophuhliso.

Amaxabiso kunye noTyalo-mali

I-IMF kwingxelo enxulumene nembonakalo yeLatin America (Epreli 2017) ithe ikho Ukufana phakathi kokuhamba kotyalo-mali kunye namaxabiso ezinto ezithengiswayo. Kule sigqibo, amazwe anjengeArgentina, iChile, iMexico, iPeru, iColombia neBrazil ahlalutywa.

Kukho ubungqina iminyaka bokuba Ukuxhomekeka kwimpahla eluhlaza kukhokelela ekubeni sesichengeni okukhulu.  Ukunyuka kwamaxabiso aphezulu kunokubangela ukothuka kwangaphandle okuqinisekileyo kunye nokunye.

I-IMF yatsho ukuba ayisiyiyo kuphela ukutyala imali kweenkampani ezivelisa izinto ezinokuchaphazeleka, iziphumo zinokuchaphazela utyalomali kumacandelo afana nolwakhiwo, ulawulo lukarhulumente, ezorhwebo, ezothutho, phakathi kwezinye izinto. 

Ukuqikelelwa kwemali ngezinto ezisetyenzisiweyo: Ingxaki inefuthe elingakanani?

Yorhwebo okanye Impahla eluhlaza

Ibango lezinto zorhwebo lonyuswe ngamabhola okuqikelela kwizinto ezingafunekiyo. Oku kukhokelele ekwandeni kwemveliso yezolimo, kunye nokumbiwa kwemigodi kunye nokusetyenziswa kwamandla.

Phakathi kwezinye iimpembelelo ezimbi, ukuguquguquka kwexabiso kusekwe kwiimveliso ezikhethiweyo ezibonisiweyo. Ngokuqinisekileyo oku kuye kwanefuthe kwimimandla yezityalo kunye neemveliso, ziziswa nayo uhlengahlengiso kwindalo,  ukwenza isantya segiya kunye nokuchaphazela amandla okulungelelanisa.

Yinto enqabileyo enyanisweni ene iimpembelelo ezimbi kwiplanethi. Umda weenzuzo zoqoqosho ubekwe ngaphezulu kwaye ngokubaluleka okuphezulu kuneyona mpembelelo yokusingqongileyo enokuthi yenzeke. Umfuziselo uyenziwa ukuphumeza iziphumo zoqoqosho, ezingazinzanga.

Izinto kunye nedola

Izinto kunye nolwalamano abalubonisayo ngenqanaba lesalathiso lebhanki esembindini yaseMelika (FED) loluluhlobo: Ukuba amazinga anyuka, imali ekuxabiswa ngayo izinto ezingafunekiyo, eyidola, iya kuthi yomelele. Oku kuya kuthi kuvelise ukuthengisa kubatyali mali beembotyi zesoya, umzekelo.

Namhlanje kwimeko

Ooqoqosho babonisa ukuba emva kwentlekele, okokuqala a ukukhula kungqamene ngokuhambelana emhlabeni.

Iqela lamazwe aphuhlileyo kunye noqoqosho olukhulu olusakhulayo lukhula ngaxeshanye. Ixesha lokugqibela ukubonwa kwesi siganeko sasingo-2006.

Intsimbi, i-aluminium, ubhedu, i-zinc kunye ne-nickel, eziyinyithi yokusetyenziswa kwemizi-mveliso, kwiikota ezintlanu kwezintandathu zokugqibela ilandele imeko ephezulu. I-China inefuthe kulo msitho ngokunqanda ukubonelelwa ukuze kulawulwe amandla emveliso.

Amaxabiso azinzileyo ayajongwa xa kuthelekiswa nokuqala konyaka okhoyo ka-2017.

Ubukho be Uxinzelelo lobume bezopolitiko eVenezuela, eSaudi Arabia naseQatar, badlala ngaphezulu. IWashington yona icwangcisa amanyathelo okhuseleko.

Ngokwe-IMF, umbono awuqinisekanga, nangona zikhona umngcipheko olungeleleneyo.

UGoldman Sachs uthe ekuhambeni kwexesha kuyakubakho imithombo yamabango amatsha aya kuthi axhase ukubuya. Umzekelo, iintsimbi zikhankanyiwe ekwenzeni iibhetri kwizithuthi zeemoto, kwimveliso yeepaneli zelanga okanye iimodyuli, oomatshini bomoya basefama, njl. Izinyithi ezifunekayo ziya kuba yi-aluminium, ubhedu, i-lithium, i-nickel phakathi kwabanye.

Kwiminyaka eli-15 ngoku, iChina ibiyi umthengi oyintloko wezinyithi zorhwebo. Isebenzisa isiqingatha semveliso ngokoluhlalutyo oluchaziweyo. Ukumodareyithwa kwemfuno kunye nokuncitshiswa kwexabiso kunokulindelwa kunyaka olandelayo we-2018, kuxhaswe yinto yokuba iChina kufuneka itshintshe uqoqosho lwayo ikhule ngakumbi kuqoqosho, ngaphandle kokuba kukho ukwanda kokusetyenziswa. Iibhotile kwinkqubo yemveliso.

Kwimeko yamandla, ibango lisomelele, kodwa ukubonelela ngumahluko. Kwakukho i-gesi yendalo kunye neoyile eyaneleyo kwintengiso, ukonwaba kokufumaneka kwamaxabiso kunye namaxabiso amandla ancitshisiweyo. Kwihlobo elidlulileyo le meko itshintshile. Umgqomo weoyile ekrwada wabonisa uxabiso nge-40% ukusukela ngoJulayi ophelileyo.

Kukho ukufundwa kwe-2018 ukuba umhlaba uya kubanga okungaphezulu kwi-United States. Nangona kungenakucaciswa ukuba ngaba abavelisi kweli bazokwazi ukuhlangabezana nemfuno. Uqikelelo kukuba kuyakufuneka ukulinganisela imarike ukukhulisa imveliso yemihla ngemihla ukusuka ngaphezulu kwezigidi ezithandathu ukuya kwizigidi ezisixhenxe.


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