Yintoni isalathiso seGini?

yintoni isalathiso segini

Ngeli xesha siza kuthetha ngalo Isalathiso seGini Ukwenza oku, siza kwenza intshayelelo emfutshane malunga nokuba a ndice yiyo ukubonakaliswa kwamanani kweenguqu ezikhoyo Ngokumalunga nesenzeko salo naluphi na uhlobo, izinto ezinokwenzeka zingalulo naluphi na uhlobo, kodwa eyona nto iphambili kwigrafu emisela ngokujonga nje zonke iinkcukacha-manani, oku kusasaza kunye / okanye ukuqonda ulwazi.

Isalathiso sokungalingani yimilinganiselo eshwankathela indlela eyahlukileyo esasazwa ngayo, nokuba yeyiphi na, phakathi kweseti yabantu. Kwimeko yokungalingani kwezoqoqosho, umlinganiso oguqukayo uhlala inkcitho yeentsapho, abantu abahlala kunye okanye abantu. Isazi sezibalo sase-Italiya Ukusasaza iGiniNdiyila isalathi esisebenzisa ukulinganisa inqanaba lokungalingani phakathi kwabahlali abakhoyo kwingingqi ethile. Ngokungafaniyo nesalathiso, ukungalingani kubalwa njengenxalenye yenxalenye yeendawo kumzobo owaziwayo "Ijika leLorenz"

Umlinganiso weGini unenani eliphakathi ko-0 no-1, apho u-0 engqinelana nokulingana okugqibeleleyo, apho wonke umntu enengeniso efanayo, ngelixa ixabiso elingu-1 lihambelana nokungalingani okugqibeleleyo, apho inye kuphela umntu onomvuzo kwaye bonke abanye bengenayo. Isalathiso se-Gini yi-Gini coefficient, kodwa ibonakalisiwe ngokubhekisele kwi-100 ubuninzi, ngokungafaniyo nomlingani ohambelana namaxabiso amanani ahleliyo aphakathi ko-0 no-1 kuphela, oku kukhawulezisa ukuqondwa kweigrafu, ngokunjalo njengokusasazwa kweziphumo ezifunyenweyo.

Ngaphakathi kuhlelo lokungalingani kukho amanyathelo amabini amakhulu asetyenziswayo kuncwadi, la maqela ngala: amanyathelo amahle, Ezihambelana nezo zingabhekiseli kwintlalontle. Ngelixa kukwakho ne amanyathelo aqhelekileyo, ezo, ngokungafaniyo nezo zilungileyo, zisekwe ekusebenzeni ngqo kwintlalontle. Kuxhomekeke kwisalathi esikhethiweyo, imigaqo okanye iiparameter ekuthelekiswa ngazo ukwabiwa kwengeniso zichaziwe.

Icandelo leepropathi zesalathiso seGini okanye umlinganiso weGini zezi:

Isalathiso sehlabathi seGini

  • Ngokwesiqhelo isiseko sokudibanisa sisetyenziselwa ukumisela indawo phakathi komgca wokulingana ngokugqibeleleyo kunye nejika laseLorenz, oku kuthathwa njengenkqubo efanelekileyo, nangona kunjalo, kukho iimeko apho inkcazo ecacileyo yegophe laseLorenz ingaziwa, ke, enye iindlela ezisetyenzisiweyo, ezinje ngeefomula ezahlukeneyo ezinenani elinokugqitywa lezongezo, iinkqubo kunye neefomula ziyahluka ngokokuqwalaselwa kwetyala.
  • Nangona isiphumo esifunwayo sisigrafu esibonisa ukungalingani ngendlela elula nesebenzisekayo, akukhuthazwa kakhulu ukuba kwenziwe uvavanyo olubonakalayo xa kufikwa kumagophe amabini aseLorenz, kuba olu vavanyo lunokuba yimpazamo, endaweni yoko Kuyacetyiswa ukuba uthelekise ukungalingani umntu ngamnye amele ngokwahlukeneyo, kubalwa ii-indices zeGini ezihambelana nejika ngalinye.
  • Naliphi na ijika laseLorenz okanye mandithi; Zonke iirolo zeLorenz zidlula kwigophe okanye kumgca odibanisa amanqaku kula makhonkco alandelayo: (0, 0) kunye (1, 1)
  • Umlinganiso wetheyibhile yokwahluka uneepropathi ezinokuthelekiswa nezo zesalathiso seGini.

Ijika leLorenz.

Isalathiso seGini

Ijika leLorenz ngumzobo osetyenziswayo ukumela ulwabiwo olunxulumene nokuguquguquka kwithambeka elinikiweyo. Ngokuqhelekileyo, i-domain apho le curve ibonakaliswa khona kukumiselwa kweempahla okanye iinkonzo kummandla, oku ngokusebenzisa ijika leLorenz ngokubambisana ne-index ye-Gini okanye i-coefficient yeGini. Umbhali wale curve ngu UMax O. Lorenz kunyaka 1905.

Ubudlelwane phakathi kwegophe leLorenz kunye nokulingana kweGini.

Ngokudibana neLorenz Curve singabala isalathiso seGini, sisahlula nje indawo eseleyo phakathi kwegophe kunye nomgca "wokulingana", le ndawo iyonke ehleli iphantsi kwegophe. Ngale ndlela sifumana ukungalingani okanye ukuphindaphinda isiphumo ngo-100, sifumana ipesenti.

Zombini isalathiso seGini kunye neLorenz Curve ziphuhlisiwe njengeendlela zokuchonga ukungalingani phakathi kwabantu bommandla (ilizwe, ilizwe, indawo, njl. umgca ogqibeleleyo, ngelixa ulwahlukileyo, ukungalingani okukhulu phakathi kwabantu bommandla, ijika lisiya libonakala ngakumbi.

Yintoni umsebenzi weSalathiso seGini?

Yintoni isalathiso seGini?

Ngaphakathi kufundo lokungalingani, kukho ukubonelelwa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo nezahlukeneyo zokuchaza indlela eyabiwa ngayo ingeniso phakathi kwamaqela abantu abohlukeneyo eluntwini okanye kwiqela labantu kuloo mmandla, ezinye zezi ndlela zezi: uku-odolwa kolwazi, izikhombisi zokungalingani kunye nemizobo yokusasaza.

Inyani yokucacisa umzobo wokubonwa kolwabiwo lwengeniso ngumsebenzi oluncedo ngokwenene kuhlalutyo lwe ukungalingani, kuba isivumela ukuba sichonge imiba yobume bokusasazwa ngezinye iindlela ezingenakwenzeka okanye ubuncinci inokuba ngumsebenzi onzima ngakumbi.

Ukusetyenziswa kwesalathiso seGini.

Kukho inqanaba lokungalingani kwezoqoqosho kuluntu oluthile kwaye ukuvela koluntu ekuhambeni kwexesha kuba sisihloko somdla kuqoqosho oluninzi nakwimbono yoluntu ngokubanzi. Kukho uhlalutyo olwahlukeneyo olwenziwa ngokubhekisele kuvavanyo lwenqanaba lokungabikho okukhoyo eluntwini. Ngexesha lembali yohlalutyo lwezoqoqosho, izikhombisi ezahlukeneyo sele zicetyisiwe kwisifundo esaziwayo sokungalingani; Ezi, nangona kunjalo, azikhange zibe neziphumo ezihle njengaleyo yabizwa ngabaphengululi besihloko njenge "Coiffence Coefficient yeGini". Njengoko esi salathisi sesona silula ukutolika, sikwasetyenziswa rhoqo njengesalathiso sengxoxo malunga nokusebenza kokungalingani kunye nefuthe lazo kumgangatho wokuphila wabantu kwingingqi.

Phakathi kwemisebenzi yokuqala okanye mandithi umsebenzi wokuqala owacebisa ukusetyenziswa kwemisebenzi yentlalontle ukulinganisa imihla yokungalingani ukusuka kunyaka 1920, yenziwe ngu DaltonNgexesha lophando, uDalton, ecetywayo ukubala nokujonga ilahleko yempilo ebangelwa lulwabiwo olulinganayo lwengeniso phakathi kwabantu. Usebenzisa ukwahlulahlula, ukulinganisa, ukongeza, kunye nomsebenzi wokwenza ingeniso, uDalton uchaze into eza kuthi kamva yaziwe njengeDalton Index.

Ukuqwalaselwa malunga nesalathiso seGini.

Isalathiso se-gini kunye nejika lorens

  • Ngaphakathi kwithiyori, ezinye iindlela ezi-4 zithathwa njengezivelisa uku-odolwa kwedatha, ngaphandle koku kwezona zisetyenziswa kakhulu zinokuphindaphindeka kakhulu "kukuhanjiswa rhoqo" kunye "nejika leLorenz", esetyenzisiweyo esincinci, kodwa esesebenzayo. yimizobo "parade" kunye "logarithmic transformation".
  • Yintoni umahluko obonisiweyo ukulinganisa ukungalingani? Ngaphakathi komsebenzi wobugcisa, kukho impikiswano malunga nokwahluka okunokuthathwa "njengokufanelekileyo" kuvavanyo lwengxinano yengeniso. Zimbini izinto eziguquguqukayo ezilawula impikiswano kule mpikiswano; Ingeniso yomntu ngamnye okanye imali iyonke yekhaya. Kunokuthiwa zombini ezi zinto zichanekileyo zichanekile, konke ngokweemfuno zokugqunywa ngokubhekisele kuphando olwenziweyo. Ngesi sizathu, kuyafuneka ukuba ubuze okokuqala, iyintoni injongo yalo mlinganiselo? Ukuze uqhubeke okanye uqhubeke kukhetho lokwahluka okungqinelana neli tyala.
  • Cinga ngokwahlulwa kwesalathiso seGini. Ngaphakathi kuhlalutyo lokungalingani, ukubola sisiseko esiphambili, kuba kufuneka siyazi imvelaphi yokungalingani okukhulu okuchaphazela ubulungisa kwinqanaba elisisiseko njengekhaya.
  • Ngaphandle kokuthandwa kunye nokulula kwenkqubo yokubala, isalathiso seGini asihambelani nepropathi “ukubola okudibanisayo”. Ngale nto sithetha ukuba ukubalwa okwenziwa kwiqela elincinci okanye amaqela amancinci akuyi kuhlala kuhambelana nexabiso lokulingana koku-odolwa kwabemi ngokwamanqanaba emivuzo.
  • Yeyiphi imithombo yedatha yokulinganisa ukungalingani? Kwithiyori, iincwadi kunye namanqaku amaninzi okulinganisa ukungalingani ziqwalasele kwaye ziphakamise iifomula ezicinga ukuba idatha yengeniso esetyenzisiweyo sisampulu engahleliwe. Oku kwahlukile kumsebenzi wobugcisa, kuba ngokwenziwa kwedatha kuqokelelwa kuphando olwenziwe emakhaya, apho ukuchongwa kweeyunithi zokujonga kuqhutywa kwinqanaba elinye okanye nangaphezulu kwaye kuninzi lwamathuba amakhaya akhethwe ngamathuba angalinganiyo. Oku kuthetha ukuba ulungelelwaniso olusebenzayo lukufuphi nje.

Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.