Tanthauzirani ndikumvetsetsa khola la Laffer

Mzere wa Laffer

Khomo la Laffer ndi chithunzi chofanizira ubale womwe ulipo pakati pamisonkho ndi chiwongola dzanja cha misonkho. Cholinga cha mphindowu ndikuwonetsa momwe misonkho imasinthira mitengo yakusintha. Yemwe adapanga mphindikatiyi ndi wazachuma waku America a Arthur Laffer, omwe akunena kuti kuwonjezeka kwa misonkho sikutanthauza kutukuka kwa kusonkhanitsa, chifukwa misonkho ikugwa.

Laffer akuti panthawi yomwe misonkho yakhazikitsidwa zero, ndalama zandalama sizikupezeka popeza kulibe msonkho uliwonse. Momwemonso, ngati msonkho uli 100%, palibe msonkho uliwonse mwina chifukwa palibe kampani kapena munthu aliyense angavomereze kupanga zabwino zomwe ndalama zomwe amapeza zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kulipira misonkho.

Malinga ndi a Laffer, ngati pamisonkho itafika pachimake, misonkho imangokhala ziro, zotsatira zake ndikuti pakhale kuchuluka kwapakatikati pazinthu zopitilira muyeso izi zomwe zimaloleza kutolera kwakukulu kotheka. Poganizira kuti inflation mu chuma chilichonse imachepetsa mtengo wa ndalama, inflation imatha kuwonedwa ngati msonkho womwe umaganiziridwa ngati kutayika kwa mtengo chifukwa cha izi ndizomwe zimachitika ndikuti omwe ali ndi ndalama zenizeni nthawi zonse amakumana ndi ndalama. , zomangira zopanda ma index ndi zida zandalama.

Izi ndichifukwa chake Laffer curve itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kupenda zovuta zakusokonekera kwachuma mu chuma chilichonse.

Mtsinje wa Laffer ndi misonkho

Titha kunena kuti Laffer curve ndi chithunzi chowonekera komwe mutha kuwona momwe chuma cha dziko chimakhudzidwira ndikuti ndalama zomwe boma limapeza zimadalira misonkho yomwe imapezeka. Khotelo limayesanso kufotokoza kuti kuwonjezeka kwa misonkho sikutanthauza kuti mupeze ndalama zambiri.

Laffer curve spain

Zotsatira zake, khola la Laffer zikuwonetsa kuti boma likamakweza misonkho mopitilira nthawi inayake, Mutha kupeza ndalama zochepa poyerekeza ndi kutsitsa misonkho pazinthu ndi ntchito. Kuphatikiza apo, boma likachulukitsa misonkho mopitilira muyeso, mtengo wotsatirapo wowonjezerapo muyesowo pamtengo ndi malire a phindu la zabwino zilizonse kapena ntchito, sizingakhale zabwino kupereka zabwino kapena ntchito kwa aliyense amene akupereka kapena kuti alandire kwa aliyense amene ali ndi mlandu.

Mwanjira ina, wopanga kapena wogula aganiza kuti alibe chidwi kapena mwachindunji, kuti sangapereke kapena kugula zabwino kapena ntchito. Chifukwa chake, kugulitsa kwa zabwino kapena ntchitoyo kumatha kugwa ndipo zotsatira zake, kuchuluka kwa misonkho yomwe ikasonkhanitsidwenso kudzagwa.

Kumvetsetsa khola la Laffer

Pamapindikira a Laffer, pa olamulira a abscissa misonkho yomwe ingatheke imayikidwa pa phindu la malonda omwe amadziwika , zomwe zimayezedwa mu peresenti kuchokera pa 0% mpaka 100% ndipo pomwe t0 ikufanana ndi 0%, pomwe tmax ikufanana 100%. Mbali inayi, olamulira a makompyuta ndi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyimira ndalama za boma mu ndalama zomwe zimadziwika ndi Inu.

El Laffer curve graph Zitha kuwerengedwa motere: msonkho wa pa zabwino kapena ntchito ndi t0, boma silipanga phindu potolera misonkho, popeza misonkho ilibe. Pomwe boma limakulitsa misonkho, zabwino kapena ntchito zimapanga phindu lochulukirapo motero kusonkhetsa kumawonjezeka.

Laffer pamapindikira kufotokozera

Komabe, Kuchuluka kwa zomwe boma limapeza kumachitika mpaka t *, yomwe pano ikadziwika kuti ndi malo oyenera kusonkhanitsira. Mwanjira ina, uwu ungakhale mulingo wamsonkho womwe umalola kuti boma lipeze ndalama zambiri kudzera mumisonkho.

Koma, kuyambira t *, kuchuluka kwa misonkho pa zabwino kapena ntchito, zimapangitsa opanga ndi ogula kukhala opanda chidwi pakupanga ndi kugula zabwino kapena ntchito, aliyense pazifukwa zawo. Pankhani ya opanga, chifukwa nthawi iliyonse amalandira ndalama zochepa, makamaka kwa ogula, chifukwa nthawi zambiri amakumana ndi zochulukirapo pamtengo wotsiriza wogula.

Poganizira kuti kusonkhetsa msonkho kofanana ndi t0 ndi tmax, kulibe, zotsatira zake ndikuti payenera kukhala misonkho yapakatikati pakati pamawonekedwe owopsawa omwe amati amaimira kuchuluka kwa ndalama zomwe amatolera. Zonsezi zimakhazikitsidwa ndi The Rolle's Theorem, momwe akuti ngati ndalama za chuma ndizopitilira msonkho, chifukwa chake pamakhala zocheperako pakatikati.

Un Zotsatira zokhotakhota ndikuti ngati boma liwonjezera kukakamizidwa kwa misonkho kupitirira kuchuluka kwa t *, kuchuluka kwa misonkho kudzakhala kopanda phindu, popeza zokolola kapena mitengo yazopeza ikupezeka yomwe ikucheperachepera.

Mwanjira ina, amayamba kupeza ndalama zochepa chifukwa choti wopanga zochepa sanalipo, ena zomwe amachita ndikugulitsa pamsika wakuda, pomwe ena amasankha kuti asapeze phindu chifukwa boma limaposa zomwe amapeza pezani misonkho. Chifukwa cha zonsezi, Laffer curve akuwonetsa kuti kuchepetsedwa kwa misonkho kumakulitsa ndalama pokhapokha misonkho yapano ikasungidwa kumanja kwa malekezero ake.

Laffer curve ikuyimira chiyembekezo chakuti kusintha kwa misonkho kumabweretsa zotsatira ziwiri zofananira pamisonkho: momwe chuma chimakhudzira masamu. Pankhani yachuma, zotsatira zabwino zomwe misonkho imakhudza anthu ogwira ntchito, zogulitsa ndi ntchito zimadziwika, pomwe misonkho ikuluikulu imabweretsa mavuto ena azachuma polanga kutenga nawo mbali pazinthu zomwe zikuwonjezeka pamisonkho.

Kumbali yake, kuwerengera masamu kumakhudzana ndi mfundo yoti ngati misonkho ndiyotsika, ndiye kuti ndalama zamsonkho zimachepetsedwa chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa misonkho, pomwe zotsutsana zimachitika ngati msonkho ukuwonjezeka, popeza kusonkhanitsa kudzera mumisonkho ndikofanana ndi msonkho womwe umachulukitsidwa ndi kusonkhanitsa komwe kumapezeka pamisonkho.

Zotsatira zake komanso malinga ndi momwe chuma chikuyendera, ndi Misonkho ya 100%, malingaliro aboma sangapeze ndalama chifukwa okhometsa misonkho amasintha machitidwe awo chifukwa chokhoma misonkho. Kwenikweni sakanakhala ndi cholinga chogwirira ntchito kapena kwa iwo akanasankha njira ina yopewera kukhoma misonkho, kuphatikizapo kupita kumsika wakuda kapena kungogwiritsa ntchito chuma chosinthana.

Kodi msonkho wa inflation umakhudzana bwanji ndi Laffer curve?

Laffer pamapindikira Economia

Con kufufuma pafupipafupi imawoneka ngati msonkho chifukwa imatsika mtengo wamtengo wapatali, ndipo chifukwa chake, pakakhala kukwera kwamitengo, ngati othandizira akufuna kusunga zolondola zenizeni, ndiye kuti ayenera kuwonjezera ndalama zawo. Ichi ndichifukwa chake Laffer adapanga mphindikati kuyimira msonkho ku United States, itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pamisonkho ya inflation.

Mbali inayi seigniorage ndi ndalama zomwe boma limalandira chifukwa chongopeza ndalama zokha, msonkho wa inflation umaimira kutayika kwakulu kwa onse omwe amapeza phindu lawo chifukwa chokwera. Mukakhala ndi chuma chomwe sichikula, kutsika kwa mitengo ndi seigniorage zimagwirizana chifukwa kukwera mitengo kumafanana ndikukula kwa kuchuluka kwa ndalama.

Komabe, mukakhala ndi chuma chochulukirachulukira, kusefera ndi kukwera kwamitengo kumasiyana chifukwa kufunika kwa ndalama kumatha kukwera chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa ndalama. Osati zokhazo, ndizothekanso kuti Central Bank ikhazikitsa chiwongola dzanja chachikulu monga chopezera ndalama, koma kutolera phindu. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ngakhale ndi kutsika kwa zero, ndizotheka kusonkhanitsa seigniorage chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa kufunika kwa ndalama.

Chiyanjano pakati pa inflation ndi seigniorage chitha kuwonedwa mu khola la LafferPoganizira kuti kukwera kwamitengo kukuwonjezeka, sizitanthauza kuti kusonkhanako kudzawonjezeka popeza ndalama zomwe zapezeka ndizochepa. Pomwe inflation imakhala zero, seigniorage ndi zero. Kuphatikiza apo, ngati kufunikira kwa ndalama kumachepa mwachangu poyerekeza ndi kukwera kwamitengo, kugwirira ntchito kumayembekezereka kutsika pang'onopang'ono chifukwa inflation ikuwonjezeka mpaka kalekale. Izi zimachitika chifukwa othandizira amayamba kusintha ndalama zawo kukhala zinthu zochepa, koma ndikubweza mwadzina.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

Khalani oyamba kuyankha

Siyani ndemanga yanu

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa. Amafuna minda amalembedwa ndi *

*

*

  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.