Kusewera kwachuma ndi chiyani

playpen pazachuma

Ponseponse kupezeka kwa zachuma Lero takumana ndi nthawi zosavomerezeka pomwe maboma amayenera kutenga zina zovomerezeka kuthi athe kulamulira chuma cha dziko; ndikuti, ngati malamulo ena sakhazikitsidwa, chuma chimakhudzidwa kwambiri. Chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe zidapangidwa nthawi imodzi mwa zovuta ndi corralito, koma ndi chiyani?

Malo osewerera Mwachidule, ndikuletsa komwe boma limakhazikitsa, momwe anthu analibe ndalama zawo mwaulere kuchokera kumaakaunti okhazikika, kuwunika maakaunti ndi mabanki osungira. Koma zinachitika liti? Ndi chiyani? Kenako, tiyankha mafunso ofunika kwambiri kuti timvetse ndalama za corralito.

Mbiri yakusewera kwachuma

Pa tsiku lachitatu la Disembala 2001, boma lamphamvu la a Fernando de la Rúa lidachita corralito yomwe idatenga pafupifupi chaka chimodzi. Izi zidachitika mdziko la Latin America ku Argentina. Ndipo chowonadi ndichakuti izi ndi zina zomwe zidasokonekera pamaso pa anthu, ndichifukwa chake Purezidenti wa la Rúa adakakamizidwa kusiya udindo wake, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti dzikolo lizi kusungunuka ndi kusakhazikika onse azandale komanso andale; zovuta zomwe zidatenga zaka zingapo.

Cholinga cha muyesowu chidafotokozedwa ngati chosowa pewani ndalama kubanki; mwanjira imeneyi mabanki sakanatha kuchotsedwa ntchito, zomwe mosakayikira zitha kubweretsa vuto lamabanki, ndichifukwa chake njira za banki zitha kugwera kwathunthu.

Ngakhale njirayi ndi yomwe idatengedwa, njira zina zomwe zikadatha kuchitidwa kuti pewani kuchotsedwa kwa mabanki; m'modzi wa iwo ndi amene adanenedwa ndi Minister of Economy, Domingo Cavallo; omwe adati kukakamiza anthu kuti azigwiritsa ntchito bwino ndalama zamagetsi kumabweretsa chuma chambiri momwe anthu azitha kuyendetsa ndalama zawo. Izi zikanalepheretsa kubweza misonkho yaboma, komanso nthawi yomweyo zikadapangitsa kuti anthu azidalira kwambiri mabanki ndikuyika ndalama zambiri.

Tsopano, mawu akuti corralito adapangidwa mu 2001, ndipo adapangidwa ndi mtolankhaniyu ndi katswiri wazachuma Antonio Laje. Izi zidachitika pomwe anali kuyang'anira gawo lazachuma mu pulogalamu ya Daniel Hadad panthawiyo. Chochitikachi chinali chofunikira kwambiri pakukula kwa zochitika za nthawiyo, ndipo ndikuti boma lidakhazikitsa ufulu wambiri wogwiritsa ntchito mabanki, zomwe zimaphatikizapo kugwiritsa ntchito ndalama zanu nthawi iliyonse, zomwe zidadzetsa kusakhutira pakati pa ogwiritsa ntchito onse.

Zinachitika bwanji mu playpen?

Izi zimayamba kuchitika pomwe a kuchotsedwa kwa ndalamaPopeza, mpaka Novembala chaka chimenecho, anthu omwe adachotsedwa anali oposa 67 biliyoni; Izi ndi zomwe zimapatsa boma chitsogozo choti apange chisankho chomanga corralito. Koma kodi zinali ndi chiyani?

Makamaka, chochitikachi chinali ndi zoletsa zingapo, zoletsa zomwe zimayang'ana zochitika za magulu awiri a anthu, Choyamba, timapeza zoletsa pagulu ndipo chachiwiri timapeza zoletsa kumabanki, tiwone zomwe zili ndi izi.

playpen pazachuma

Kwenikweni Zoletsa pagulu tinawona kuti ogwiritsa ntchito sangatenge ndalama zopitilira 25 pesos kapena madola 250, malire pamlungu. Ndipo izi ndizoletsedwa kumaakaunti onse omwe anali m'dzina la eni ake, kotero kuti sizinali zosangalatsa ngati anali ndi akaunti mu banki iyi kapena imeneyo, popeza sabata imodzi amangopeza $ 250 kuchokera muakaunti yake.

Lamulo lachiwiri ndilo la pitani kunjaIzi zimangogwiritsidwa ntchito kwa ogwiritsa ntchito wamba, popeza kutengaku kunkaloledwa kwa iwo omwe amagwirizana ndi malonda akunja, komanso zolipira zolipirira kapena kuchotsera komwe kumachitika kunja. Mwanjira imeneyi adayesedwa kuti banki yadziko silinathe ndalama zoyendetsera.

Tsopano ndikulankhula za zoletsa mabungwe azachuma, Choyamba, tiyeni tiwunikire mfundo yoti sanaloledwe kugwira ntchito mwachangu, kuwonjezera pa izi, njira zoyendetsera ndalama zakunja zinali zoletsedwa. Kuphatikiza apo, mabungwewa sanaloledwe kuchita nkhanza mwachindunji kapena m'njira zina; Kupatula momwe zinthuzo zidasinthidwira kukhala madola, bola ngati wamangawayo avomera kuyenda.

Choletsa china ndikuti chiwongola dzanja chomwe chinali chachikulu kuposa zomwe ndalama zinali zofanana, kaya ndi ndalama kapena madola, sizingaperekedwe. Pakadali pano ndikofunikanso kunena kuti ntchito zomwe zikugwira ntchito zitha kusinthidwa kukhala ndalama zakunja, bola ngati lamulo losandulika silinaganiziridwe. 23.928, motero kutanthauza kuti zochitikazo zinali zowongolera m'njira yosavuta.

Chomaliza cha zoletsa zomwe zikugwiritsidwa ntchito m'mabungwe Ndiwo omwe sawalola kuti azilipiritsa ndalama zilizonse pakusintha ndalama kulikonse. Pokhapokha ngati ntchitoyi ikuchitika kudzera mumaakaunti omwe amatsegulidwa m'mabungwe azachuma. Izi zikutanthauza kuwonongeka kwakukulu pamabungwe azachuma, zomwe zikuwonetsa kuti okhawo osakhutira ndi zotsatira za chisankhochi sanali ogwiritsa ntchito, komanso mabungwe azachuma adakhudzidwa kwambiri chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito corralito.

Zolinga za corralito zachuma

Ngakhale cholinga chachikulu cha njirayi chinafotokozedwa kale, tiyeni tiwone bwino momwe zochitikazo zidachitikira kuti zichitike. Mfundo yoyamba kuganizira ndi yakuti idayenera kupewa kutayikira ndalama m'mabanki, kutayikira kumeneku kunali chifukwa cha chochitika chomwe ogwiritsa ntchito adasiya kudalira mabanki. Pakachitika kuwuluka kwakulu, ndiye kuti kuyerekezera kungachitike pakungotembenuka, zomwe sizingasangalatse mabanki komanso dongosolo lazachuma.

playpen pazachuma

Poganizira izi komanso malingaliro awa, ndiye kuti chisankho chimapangidwa kuti apange sewero losemphana kwambiri, corralito, kudzera mwa zomwe zimakonzedwa kuti zipewe kuchotsedwa kwakukulu kwa ndalama.

Cholinga china chomwe adalingalira chinali chokhudza kukhala ndi Kuyenda kwa ndalama kotero kuti chuma sichinayime chifukwa anthu samatha kupeza ndalama zawo, koma zimaganiziridwa kuti ndalama zimasungidwa mkati mwa mabanki pogwiritsa ntchito makhadi a kubanki. Popeza zolinga zonsezi zaboma, sikuti ndi a mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito kwaulere ndalama zawo, koma ogwiritsa ntchito ambiri adakakamizidwanso kutenga makhadi kuti athe kupeza ndalamazo, ngakhale kuti sangakhale ndi ndalama ngati atha kupeza katundu kudzera kubanki.

Chifukwa chake cholinga cha boma chinali sungani dongosolo la banki kukhala lolimba, ndipo monga tanenera m'ndime zapitazi, iyi inali imodzi mwanjira zingapo zomwe zingaganizidwe kuti ndalama zizigwira ntchito m'mabanki.

Zotsatira zosewerera

Conticorralito wachuma

Chimodzi mwazikulu Zotsatira za playpen, Ndi chifukwa chinali chisankho chomwe chidatengedwa mwadzidzidzi, kotero panalibe nthawi yankho kwa omwe akukhudzidwa kuti atengere vutoli. Chifukwa cha kusinthaku mwadzidzidzi, kusowa kwa ndalama mdzikolo kudasokonekera, pomwe kayendetsedwe kazachuma kanasokonezedwa ndi kusowa kwachuma.

Chifukwa cha zomwe tafotokozazi, malonda ndi ngongole zonse zidalumala, ndikupangitsa kuti chuma chiziyenda bwino. Chimodzi mwa izi ndichifukwa kuchuluka kwa anthu ali ndi ngongole yake kulimbikitsa chuma chosakhazikika.

Zotsatira zoyipa kwambiri zidachitika mdziko loyandikira la Uruguay, ndikuti anthu aku Argentina anali ndi lingaliro lotha kutulutsa ndalama zawo m'mabanki a dziko loyandikana nalo, komabe, izi zidadzetsa vuto mu 2002 bank ya Uruguay, imodzi mwodziwika kwambiri m'mbiri yake, ndipo idayambitsidwa ndi boma la Argentina.


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