Malo olandirira alendo ndi chiyani?

Malo olandirira mgwirizano

Pakati pa zachuma pali mawu ambiri omwe ife omwe sitimakumana nawo nthawi zonse ndi chilengedwechi mwina sangadziwe, komabe, pali mawu ena omwe tonsefe tiyenera kudziwa kuti timvetsetse momwe magwiridwe antchito apano. Limodzi mwa mawu awa ndi Lobby, mawu omwe angatikumbutse ife Chingerezi, komabe, ndi mawu ofunikira kwambiri pankhani zachuma ndi ndale, tiwone tanthauzo la izi.

Mwachidziwikire, kumvera Mawu okopa Tiyeni tiganizire zomwe m'Chisipanishi zimadziwika kuti chipinda chodikirira kapena chipinda chodikirira. Komabe, tanthauzo lakuya kwambiri, malo olandirira alendo amadziwika ngati gulu lolimbikitsa kapena gulu lokakamiza; Izi zikutanthauza kuti a Oyendetsa malo ndi gulu la anthu omwe amabwera palimodzi kuti athe kukakamiza ena omwe ali ndi cholinga chowongolera zisankho zandale kapena zachuma, m'njira yoti zisankhozo ndizokomera gulu la anthu omwe asonkhana.

Ndipo teremu iyi ndi mchitidwewu sizinthu zomwe zatuluka mzaka zaposachedwa, tiwone kuti zidayamba liti komanso chifukwa chiyani.

Chiyambi cha a Lobbies

Malinga ndi Zolemba zakale komwe titha kufikira lero, mawuwa adayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito mzaka zapitazi za 100th century, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti, kwa zaka zopitilira XNUMX, mawuwa akhala mbali ya mawu athu, ndipo zakhudza zisankho zingapo zomwe maboma omwe akhalapo.

Malo olandirira mgwirizano

Kuti athe kukumana chidzalo cha nkhaniyi za mawuwa ndikofunikira kunena kuti pofika chaka cha 1830 mawu oti Lobby anali atasankha kale dera lomwe likufanana ndi makonde a Nyumba ya Commons; ati chipinda ndi malo osankhidwa kuti athe kukambirana nkhani zomwe zikufanana ndi nyumba yamalamulo. Zina mwazomwe zidatsutsana ndi malo ogwirizira ndikuti General Grant, waku United States, adakhazikika pamalo ochepera alendo ku hoteloyi, chifukwa cha moto womwe udakhudza White House. Ndipo atangokhazikitsidwa pamalo amenewo olandirira alendo adadzazidwa ndi zomwe tikudziwa tsopano ngati olandirira alendo.

Cholinga cholandirira

Chifukwa cha zomwe tawerenga zokhudza zokakamiza ndizotheka kuti tikhulupirira kuti gulu lomwe limakumana kuti lithe kukakamiza chisankho chandale kapena zachuma, titha kuganiza kuti ndichosaloledwa, komabe, ndizosiyana, chifukwa Popeza kuti ntchitoyi imachitika pafupipafupi, lingaliro lakhazikitsidwa kuti akhazikitse mabungwewo. Ndipo zimawerengedwa kuti cholinga cholandirira alendo ndikuti onse omwe ali ndi chidwi chofuna kuchita chilichonse chifukwa chaziganizo za akuluakulu aboma atha kunena malingaliro awo, zosowa zawo, kapena kusagwirizana komwe kumakhudzana ndi chisankhocho.

Ndipo ngakhale lamuloli lakhala likugwira ntchito kwazaka zambiri, mzaka zaposachedwa pakhala kupita patsogolo kwambiri pankhaniyi malamulo okakamiza, kupanga kuwonetsetsa ndi kukhazikitsa zomwe zachitika m'njira yothandiza kwambiri komanso m'njira yomwe onse omwe ali ndi chidwi amatha kukwaniritsa zosowa zawo ndi nkhawa zawo kudzera munjira imeneyi.

Chifukwa United States ndi amodzi mwa malo oyamba momwe izi zimayambira kuyendetsedwa ndi lamulo, titha kupeza zambiri zonena za izi zomwe zidachitika mdzikolo; Mwachitsanzo, tili ndi mawu a a John F. Kennedy, momwe Purezidenti waku America akuwonetsa kuti mwayi wopezera mwayi ndikuti omwe ali mgululi atha kumufotokozera zovuta mumphindi 10, pomwe aphungu ake amatha masiku atatu.

Chifukwa chake kamodzi maboma adazindikira kufunikira kwa ma lobbies awa, ndipamene lingaliro lidawakhazikitsa, chifukwa kuti kugwiritsa ntchito lamuloli m'njira yofunikira kuyenera kumvera kwa iwo omwe ali ndi chidwi ndi izi kapena lingaliro lomwe lingachitike, kuphatikiza izi zimaloleza malangizo a anthu omwe akukhudzidwa nthawi zonse amakhudzidwa chifukwa cha zabwino, chifukwa ndiye kutha kwa ndale.

Kuno ku European Union kuli malamulo okakamiza, malamulo omwe amawonetsedwa mu registry ya anthu, yomwe idakhazikitsidwa mu 2008, m'mwezi wa June. Ndipo chifukwa chachikulu chomwe adagwirizira kuti apange kutsegulaku ndichakuti amafuna kukulitsa kuwonekera kwa magwiridwe antchito a mabungwe omwe akukhudzidwa. Ndipo tsopano popeza tikudziwa momwe adakhalira komanso kuti akuyendetsedwa pakadali pano, tiyeni tiwone momwe olondolerawa amagawidwira, kuti timvetsetse gawo lawo pakupanga malamulo apano.

Gulu lokopa alendo

Malo olandirira mgwirizano

Mabwana

Zoyamba zomwe tidzatchule ndi kukakamiza olemba anzawo ntchito, ndikuti udindo wake pakukula kwa anthu amakono ukuwonekera bwino. Pazaka zomwe chizolowezichi chakhala chizolowezi, mabungwe a olemba anzawo ntchito ndi amodzi mwamagulu omwe ali ndi kulemera kwakukulu malinga ndi zisankho zomwe zidzatengeredwe pofotokozera njira yamalamulo antchito. Izi zikutanthawuza kuti zakhudza momwe njira yolembera anthu imakhalira. M'modzi mwa Malo odziwika bwino ku Europe ndi ERT, yotchedwa tebulo lozungulira la ku Europe la akatswiri ogulitsa mafakitale.

Ngakhale zimadalira dziko lomwe tikunena, chowonadi ndichakuti maboma awapatsa gawo lofunikira kwambiri pandale, ndipo chifukwa cha ichi ndikuti kwakukulu ndi omwe akukopa olamulirawo ogwira ntchito, kotero iwo ndi omwe amadziwa bwino kwambiri mundawo komanso ndi omwe ali ndi gawo lalikulu lachuma.

Tiyeneranso kutchulanso kuti nthawi zambiri mwayi wapadera umaperekedwa kwa omwe ali mgulu la izi, poyerekeza ndi ena mabungwe odziyimira pawokha, zomwe zimapangitsa kukhala m'mabungwewa kukhala chikhumbo chodikirira kwanthawi yayitali kwamakampani ambiri nthawi zambiri.

Mgwirizano

Magulu ena opanikizika omwe amakhudza kwambiri chitukuko cha makampani ndi awa Malo ogwirira ntchito limodzi. Maguluwa adakhudzidwa kwambiri osati muzaka zaposachedwa, koma kuyambira zaka za zana la XNUMX, kukhalapo kwawo kwakhala kowonekeratu polowererapo ndi zisankho zaboma.

Imodzi mwa mitu yayikulu yomwe ikukhudzidwa ndi boma la zachitetezo kapena boma, momwe amatchulidwapo mfundo zamaboma zomwe zikuyenera kupindulitsa kwambiri anthu. Zowona kuti olowererapo amalowererapo munthawi zandalezi ndizofunikira kuti mayiko ambiri akhazikitse malamulo kuti athe chitsimikizo monga malipiro ochepa, nthawi yopuma, pakati pa ena ambiri.

Pakadali pano pali gulu ili, ambiri mabungwe padziko lonse, zomwe zitha kuyimira gulu linalake la ogwira ntchito, mwachitsanzo titha kutchula mabungwe ophunzirira, kapena migodi, mafuta, mabungwe azolimo, pakati pa ena ambiri.

Ndipo ngakhale zili zoona kuti simukufuna ufulu wa ogwira ntchito, kuli mayiko ena kumene mphamvu za mabungwe azamalonda sizichuluka, titha kutchula za France, Italy ndi Great Britain ngati ena mwa malo omwe mabungwe azamalonda sakhala ofunika kwenikweni; Izi zikuchitika, malinga ndi akatswiri, poti pakadali pano pali mpikisano waukulu pakati pa mabungwe osiyanasiyana, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti ogwira ntchito amabalalika osati m'malo awo ogwirira ntchito okha, koma sangathe ngakhale kuvomerezana nazo zosowa zawo powonetsetsa aliyense payekha moyo wabwino.

Akatswiri a zachilengedwe

Ndizosadabwitsa kuti mzaka zaposachedwa talowa munthawi yomwe anthu akuti akukonda zachilengedwe. Chifukwa chakudziwika kwa mutuwu, mabungwe ambiri padziko lonse lapansi adapangidwa kuti athe kuonetsetsa kuti zachilengedwe za dziko lapansi.

Zofunikira zazikulu za izi mtundu wa zokakamiza Ayenera kusamalira kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa zinthu zachilengedwe zomwe zilipo padziko lapansi, kusamalira kuti zotulutsa zomwe zimapangidwa sizikuwononga chilengedwe, komanso kusamalira kuipitsa komwe kumachitika padziko lapansi komanso m'madzi.

Mphamvu ndi chikoka mwa mabungwewa zimawonekera tikatchula malamulo opangira mpweya, komanso kufunika kwa zinthu zachilengedwe zomwe ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'makampani opanga, bungwe la ISO lidapangidwa lomwe limayang'ana kusamalira zachilengedwe, ndi mavuto Sikuti zimangokambidwa pazokomera anthu zokha, komanso ndale komanso zachuma.

Mosakayikira, mabungwe onsewa atenga gawo lofunikira pakukula kwa mbiriyakale ya anthu, ndipo mosakaika konse zipitilizabe malinga ngati pali zokonda zofanana.

 

 


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  1. Wotsogolera pazosankhazi: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Cholinga cha deta: Control SPAM, kasamalidwe ka ndemanga.
  3. Kukhazikitsa: Kuvomereza kwanu
  4. Kulumikizana kwa zomwe zafotokozedwazo: Zomwezo siziziwululidwa kwa anthu ena kupatula pakukakamizidwa mwalamulo.
  5. Zosunga: Zosungidwa ndi Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Ufulu: Nthawi iliyonse mutha kuchepetsa, kuchira ndikuchotsa zidziwitso zanu.