Pali ndalama zochuluka motani padziko lapansi

Pali ndalama zochuluka motani padziko lapansi

Zachidziwikire kuti tonse tadzifunsa funso ili, chifukwa ndi funso la miliyoni dollars mozama. Yankho ndikuti ndalamazo ndizosiyana ndipo zimadalira zochitika zambiri. Makamaka momwe ephemeral imafotokozedwera lingaliro la ndalama. Kwa ena amalingaliro apamwamba, ndalama ndizo golidi ndi siliva. Amatcha china chilichonse kuyamika.

Koma, ngati mudayamba mwadzifunsapo kuti padziko lapansi pali ndalama zingati, mwina mukuganiza kuti yankho la izi liyenera kukhala lokwanira kwambiri, koma yankho silophweka. Mdziko lino lapansi komwe ndalama ikuyimira gawo lochepa chabe la chiwerengerocho, chifukwa chake tiyenera kuganizira zinthu zambiri zomwe zingatipatse yankho.

Pakadali pano mtengo wamtengo wapatali Zimakhazikitsidwa ndi kukhulupirira kwa anthu izi, ndichifukwa choti ndalama zambiri zomwe zimafalikira mgulu la anthu sizinaperekedwe ndi maboma adziko kapena kuthandizidwa ndi nkhokwe za mayiko, koma kuti pafupifupi 90% ya ndalama zomwe zikuzungulira padziko lapansi ndi ndalama zomwe mabanki azinsinsi azamalonda Apangidwa ndipo 10% yokha ndi ndalama m'makobidi ndi ngongole zomwe zimasiyidwa mwalamulo ndi maboma.

Ndalama padziko lapansi

Kudziwa pali ndalama zochuluka motani padziko lapansiSizingakhale zokwanira kuganizira ndalama zosiyanasiyana ndi mabilu omwe alipo. Ndalama zonse zimachokera kuzinthu zosiyanasiyana, imodzi mwazo ndi ndalama. Ndalama zomwe zimazungulira limodzi ndi ndalama zakuthupi zomwe zimasungidwa m'mabanki a banki zimadziwika kuti zimatchedwa ndalama. Ndalama ndiyonse yomwe ilipo padziko lapansi.

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ndalama

Kudziwa ndikudziwa ndalama zonse padziko lapansiTiyeneranso kulingalira za ndalama zomwe tili nazo posunga kapena maakaunti athu, ma cheke kapena ndalama zomwe zapangidwa, ndiye kuti ndalama zomwe zimapezeka nthawi yomweyo. Ndalama zamtunduwu zimadziwika kuti Ndalama Zochepa ndipo gululi limaphatikizaponso ndalama, dzina lina lomwe limadziwika kuti M1.

Mukawonjezera ku M1 ndalamazo ndikupezeka kwakanthawi kochepa kapena kwapakatikati, monga nthawi, ndalama zake zimakhala zochuluka kwambiri, zomwe zimadziwika kuti M2. Ngati izi zikuwonjezeredwa kusamutsa kwakanthawi kwa ndalama, masheya ena kupatula magawo, kutenga nawo mbali pamsika wamsika wa ndalama, kuyambira gawo ili, pali zolemba zina zomwe zimaphatikizapo zomwe zatchulidwazi kale ndipo zitha kusiyanitsidwa kutengera momwe kupezeka kwawo, komanso kuchuluka kwa ndalama za tikukambidwa, munjira imeneyi titha kupeza mu M6 ngakhale M7.

Chiwerengero cha zinthu zakubanki

Pambuyo potchula zonsezi, zimamveka bwino momwe zimakhalira zovuta kuwerengera ndalama zonse padziko lapansi, koma ziyerekezo zitha kupangidwa. Zikuyerekeza kuti pali madola opitilira 1, omwe XNUMX% yokha ndi mapepala kapena ndalama, pachifukwa ichi titha kulingalira kufunikira kwa zinthuzo mabungwe azachuma omwe amayang'anira ulusi wachuma wapadziko lonse lapansi.

Pali ndalama zochuluka motani padziko lapansi

Munthawi izi momwe kufunikira kumawonekera kulikonse, makamaka mu dera la macroeconomicsNjira za ngongolezi nthawi zambiri zimawerengedwa ngati ndalama ndipo mmaderawa mawuwo amagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zina zambiri komanso zopatsa chidwi. Chifukwa chake vuto pakusanthula sikuti kuchuluka kwakukulu kwa zero kumawonjezeredwa pomwe tanthauzo likufutukuka ndikukhala losamveka bwino, koma zomwe zili ndi tanthauzo la tanthauzo.

Tiyeneranso kutenga nawo mbali msika wasiliva amawerengedwa yomwe ili pafupi 14 biliyoni. Chinthu choyamba muyenera kudziwa ndikuti, mosiyana ndi golide, siliva ili ndi pafupifupi 10 mu mafakitale azachipatala, zamagetsi, ndi zina zambiri. Komanso, mvetsetsani momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito ngati ndalama zenizeni. Ndizokhudza kumvetsetsa kuti mtengo wazitsulo zamtengo wapatali, kaya golide kapena siliva, wakhala ukuponderezedwa kwambiri kwazaka zambiri ndi mabanki apakati, makamaka chifukwa mbiri yawonetsa kuti ndi ndalama zokha zomwe ndizofunika, ndipo pachifukwa ichi, ndizofunikira zomwe ndalama zanu zopangira ndalama ziyenera kukhala pamtengo monga yuro, dollar, yen, mapaundi, peso, yuan, ndi zina zambiri.

Malinga ndi mtengo wa Ndalama zamakampani wosirira kwambiri kuposa New York Stock Exchange, Apple. Ndi $ 616 biliyoni, titha kuthana ndi vuto lomwe likukhudza ma Anglo trillion.

La ngongole yapadziko lonse yatenga gawo lofunikira, chifukwa ichi ndichifukwa chobweza ngongole zonse monga ma bond national, ndalama zonsezi ndi $ 199 AT zomwe zidapezeka ndikupangidwa kuchokera kunja kwa mpweya pambuyo pamavuto mu 2008. Izi zikutanthauza kuti, mu Kutalika kwa zaka 8, dziko lapansi lidalipira ngongole zowonjezera zochulukirapo 94 pamtengo wamsika wa Apple.

Kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka

Apa ndipomwe fayilo ya kuwerengera ndalama padziko lonse lapansi amatenga somersault, popeza imakwera kupita kukokomeza kwambiri, komwe ndi zida zochokera. Ndizofunikira kwambiri chifukwa cha misala ya 1.2 quadrillion. Zomwe zikufanana ndi maapulo pafupifupi 2.

Zotumphukazi akuti zidapangidwa ngati njira yothanirana nayo mavuto azachumaKoma malinga ndi akatswiri ambiri, zotsutsana zakwaniritsidwa, zomwe zikuwonjezera ngozi. M'malo mwake, zida zachuma zowonongera anthu ambiri ndiumboni wa izi ndipo, ngakhale zili zowona kuti amapanga seti yomwe imawonjezera mpaka zero, zovuta zomwe adzachititse pakati pa otchova njuga, pakuphulika, pakati ndi okhumudwitsa opambana, omwe anzawo sanathe kulipira. Pamapeto pake, aliyense amakhala wotayika.

Njira yosavuta yochitira malongosoledwewo ndikuti mu mabanki kuti dziko lirilonse liri, pali anthu ndi makampani omwe ali ndi ndalama zomwe akufuna kusungitsa m'mabanki, mwa mawonekedwe owunika maakaunti, madipoziti a nthawi, mabanki osungira ndalama, ndi zina zambiri. Munthu akaika ndalama kubanki, ndalamazi sizikanasungidwa m'chipinda kosatha, kudikirira kuti tsiku lina munthuyo adzachotse.

Pali ndalama zochuluka motani padziko lapansi

M'malo mwake, zomwe zimachitika ndikuti banki idzagwiritsa ntchito ndalamazo kuti ibwereke kwa ena omwe amabwera pemphani ngongole. Komabe, muyenera kusunga kapena kusunga kuchuluka kwa ndalamazo munkhokwe, ngati kasitomala akufuna kuti achotseko nthawi iliyonse. Kuchulukako kumatha kusiyanasiyana mdziko ndi dziko, ndipo zakhazikitsidwa ndi banki yayikulu mdziko lililonse kuti mabanki azinsinsi ali ndi udindo wokhala ndi 10% ya madipoziti ngati chosungira, chifukwa chake munthu akaika madola 10 zikwi banki, banki iyi iyenera kusunga ndalama zokwana madola chikwi mkati mwa zipinda zake ndipo zotsalazo zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kubwereketsa kwa ena ngati ngongole.

Njirayi yagwira ntchito motere chifukwa mwayi womwe makasitomala onse amafuna kutaya ndalama zako nthawi yomweyo ndi yotsika, ndichifukwa chake ngati pali makasitomala 100 kubanki omwe ndalama pafupifupi $ 2 zasungidwa aliyense, pakhoza kukhala $ 200 yonse, kuti banki ikhale ndi udindo wosunga 10%, yomwe ndi yofanana ndi $ 20, pomwe ina yonse, yomwe ndi $ 180, itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zina, monga kukongoza anthu ena.

Mwachitsanzo, tiyerekeze kuti a kasitomala amasunga madola miliyoni kubanki, banki yomwe tatchulayi itha kugwiritsira ntchito 90% ya zomwe kasitomala angabweze kwa ogwiritsa ntchito ena, pano zitha kukhala madola 900. Tsopano tiyerekeze kuti wina akufuna ngongole ya $ 200 kuti agule nyumba, kasitomala wina amafunika $ 300 kuti atsegule bizinesi yatsopano, ndipo wina amatenga ngongole ya $ 400 kuti agule nyumba. Popeza banki ili ndi $ 900 yokha kuchokera kwa makasitomala oyamba, imatha kupereka ndalama zonse kwa anthu onse atatu.

Koma, banki siyipereka ndalama zokwana 900 XNUMX dollars kwa makasitomala ake, koma a onjezani ku akaunti yanu yakubankiIzi zikutanthauza kuti ndalama zimangopangidwa kuchokera pachiyambi, ndi nambala chabe mumndandanda wamaakaunti aku banki. Pachifukwa ichi, madola mamiliyoni omwe adayikidwapo poyamba azikhala osasunthika, pokhapokha ndi magawo ake osungidwa, banki idzakhala ndi ufulu wopanga ndalamazo mpaka 90% ya ndalama zonse zomwe zimasungidwa ndalama. Mwanjira iyi, madola 900 adzawonjezeredwa pamakina azachuma.


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