Kodi Gini Index ndi chiyani?

Kodi gini index ndi chiyani

Nthawi ino tikambirana Chizindikiro cha Gini Kuti tichite izi, tipanga mwachidule za zomwe a index ndi chiwonetsero chazosintha zamitundu yomwe ilipo Ponena za chodabwitsa chamtundu uliwonse, zodabwitsazi zitha kukhala zamtundu uliwonse, koma lingaliro lake lalikulu ndi graph yomwe imatsimikiza pang'onopang'ono ziwerengero zonse, izi kuti zithandizire kufalitsa komanso / kapena kumvetsetsa zambiri.

Chizindikiro cha kusalingana ndi muyezo womwe umafotokozera mwachidule momwe kusinthana kumagawidwira, zilizonse, pakati pa gulu la anthu. Pankhani ya kusalingana kwachuma, kuwerengera kosiyanasiyana nthawi zambiri kumawononga mabanja, omwe amakhala nawo limodzi kapena anthu ena. Wolemba ziwerengero waku Italy Kufalikira kwa Gini, Ndikupanga chizindikiritso chomwe ntchito yake ndikuyeza kuchuluka kwa kusalingana pakati pa omwe akukhala m'dera linalake. Mosiyana ndi index, coefficient imawerengedwa ngati gawo limodzi mwa magawo omwe ali pachithunzicho chodziwika bwino "Lorenz pamapindikira"

Chiwerengero cha Gini chimakhala ndi nambala pakati pa 0 ndi 1, pomwe 0 amafanana ndi kufanana kokwanira, pomwe aliyense ali ndi ndalama zofanana, pomwe manambala 1 amafanana ndi kusalingana bwino, pomwe munthu m'modzi yekha ndiye amapeza ndalama ndipo ena onse alibe. Gini Index ndi coefficient ya Gini, koma imafotokozedwa potengera 100, mosiyana ndi coefficient yomwe ikufanana ndi manambala a decimal omwe amapezeka pakati pa 0 ndi 1, ndikufulumizitsa kumvetsetsa kwa ma graph, komanso monga kufalitsa zotsatira zomwe zapezeka.

M'magulu azosiyana pali zinthu ziwiri zikuluzikulu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'mabukuwa, magulu awa ndi awa: njira zabwino, zomwe zimagwirizana ndi zomwe sizikutanthauza zachitukuko. Pomwe palinso njira zokhazikika, zomwe, mosiyana ndi zabwinozo, zimakhazikika pantchito yachitukuko. Kutengera ndi chiwonetsero chomwe mwasankha, zikhalidwe kapena magawo omwe magawidwe azachuma amafanizidwa amafotokozedwa.

Zina mwazinthu za index ya Gini kapena coefficient ya Gini ndi:

Mndandanda wa World Gini

  • Nthawi zambiri chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pozindikira dera lomwe lili pakati pa mzere wolondola ndi khomo la Lorenz, iyi imadziwika kuti ndiyo njira yoyenera, komabe, palinso milandu yomwe tanthauzo lomveka bwino la khola la Lorenz silikudziwika, Chifukwa chake, njira zina amagwiritsidwa ntchito, monga mitundu ingapo yokhala ndi malire owonjezera, njira ndi mayankho zimasiyanasiyana malinga ndi momwe mlanduwo waganizidwira.
  • Ngakhale zotsatira zomwe zikufunidwa ndi graph yomwe imafotokoza za kusalingana m'njira yosavuta komanso yothandiza, sikulimbikitsidwa kuti kuwunika kuwoneke pokhudzana ndi ma curve awiri a Lorenz, popeza kuwunikaku kungakhale kolakwika, m'malo mwake, tikulimbikitsidwa kuyerekeza kusalinganika komwe aliyense amayimira payokha, kuwerengera ma indices a Gini ofanana ndi kukhota kulikonse.
  • Mzere uliwonse wa Lorenz kapena kani; Ma curve onse a Lorenz amadutsa kupindika kapena mzere womwe umalumikiza mfundo pamakonzedwe otsatirawa: (0, 0) ndi (1, 1)
  • Kuchuluka kwa tebulo losiyanasiyana kuli ndi katundu wofanana ndi uja wa index ya Gini.

Khomo la Lorenz.

Chizindikiro cha Gini

Mzere wa Lorenz ndi chithunzi chojambulidwa chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyimira kugawa kosiyanasiyana kwazomwe zapezedwa. Kawirikawiri, malo omwe phokoso ili likuwonetsedwa ndi chiwonetsero cha katundu kapena ntchito m'deralo, izi pogwiritsa ntchito mphika wa Lorenz mogwirizana ndi Gini index kapena Gini coefficient. Wolemba wokhotakhota uyu ndi Max O. Lorenz mu chaka 1905.

Ubale pakati pa khola la Lorenz ndi cholowa cha Gini.

Pamodzi ndi Lorenz Curve titha kuwerengera cholozera cha Gini, tikungogawa malo otsalawo pakati pa khola ndi mzere "wofanana", ndi gawo lathunthu lomwe latsala pansi pokhota. Mwanjira imeneyi timapeza coefficient kapena kuchulukitsa zotsatira ndi 100, timapeza peresenti.

Zolemba zonse za Gini ndi Lorenz Curve zimapangidwa ngati njira zodziwira kusalingana pakati pa anthu amderalo (dziko, dziko, dera, ndi zina zambiri), kumvetsetsa kuti kuchuluka komwe kulipo pakati pa okhalamo, kumakulirakulira kwambiri mzere wangwiro, pomwe uli wotsutsana, kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa anthu amderalo, kokhotakhota kumawonekera kwambiri.

Kodi ntchito ya Gini Index ndi yotani?

Kodi Gini Index ndi chiyani?

Pakufufuza zakusalinganika, pali njira zingapo zofotokozera momwe ndalama zimagawidwira m'magulu osiyanasiyana a anthu mdera kapena gulu la anthu mdera, zina mwanjira izi ndi monga: kuyitanitsa kwa zidziwitso, zisonyezo zakusalinganika ndi zithunzi zobalalitsa.

Zowonjezera kutanthauzira chithunzithunzi chowonera kagawidwe kandalama ndichinthu chofunikira kwambiri pakuwunika kwa kusalinganika, popeza zimatipangitsa kuzindikira mawonekedwe amtundu wogawa omwe ndi njira zina sizingatheke kapena kungakhale ntchito yovuta kwambiri.

Kugwiritsa ntchito index ya Gini.

Pali kusiyana pakati pazachuma mdera linalake ndipo kusinthika kwa gululi pakapita nthawi kumakhala mutu wosangalatsa kwa azachuma ambiri komanso malingaliro pagulu. Pali kusanthula kosiyanasiyana komwe kumachitika pofufuza momwe kusayeruzika kulili pagulu. M'mbiri yakusanthula kwachuma, zisonyezo zingapo zakhala zikufotokozedwera kale kafukufuku wodziwika wa kusalingana; Izi, komabe, sizinakhale ndi zotulukapo zabwino ngati zomwe adayitanitsa akatswiri a mutuwo monga "Gini Concentration Coefficient". Popeza mndandandandawu ndiwosavuta kutanthauzira, umagwiritsidwanso ntchito nthawi zonse ngati njira yothanirana ndi kuthana ndi magwiridwe antchito a kusalingana ndi zomwe zimakhudza miyoyo ya anthu m'deralo.

Mwa ntchito zoyambirira kapena m'malo mwake ntchito yoyamba yomwe idalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito ntchito zothandiza anthu kuti athe kuyerekeza masiku osalingana kuyambira chaka 1920, zopangidwa ndi DaltonPakufufuza uku, Dalton, akufuna kuwerengera ndikuwona kuchepa kwa moyo wabwino komwe kumayambitsidwa chifukwa chogawana ndalama pakati pa anthu. Pogwiritsa ntchito ntchito yolekanitsa, yophatikizika, yowonjezera, komanso yothandiza ndalama, Dalton adalongosola zomwe pambuyo pake zimadziwika kuti Dalton Index.

Zoganizira za index ya Gini.

gini index ndi lorens curve

  • Mkati mwa chiphunzitsochi, njira zina 4 zimawerengedwa kuti zimapanga kuyitanitsa deta, ngakhale zili choncho, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri mobwerezabwereza ndi "kugawa pafupipafupi" ndi "Lorenz curve", osagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri, koma ogwira ntchito kwambiri. ndi "zithunzi zofananira" komanso "kusintha kwa logarithmic."
  • Kodi pali kusintha kotani komwe kumayeza kusiyana? Pogwira ntchitoyi, pali kutsutsana pazosinthasintha zomwe zitha kuonedwa ngati "zoyenera" pakuwunika momwe ndalama zilili. Pali mitundu iwiri ikuluikulu yomwe imawongolera kutsutsana pamtsutsowu; ndalama za munthu aliyense kapena ndalama zonse zapakhomo. Titha kunena kuti zosintha zonse ndizolondola, zonse kutengera kufunikira koyenera kufotokozedwa pokhudzana ndi kafukufuku yemwe achitike. Pachifukwa ichi, ndikofunikira kufunsa koyambirira, cholinga cha muyesowu ndi chiyani? Kuti mupitilize kapena kupitilira pakusankha zosintha zomwe zikufanana ndi izi.
  • Ganizirani zakugawana kwa index ya Gini. Pakuwunika kusalingana, kuwonongeka ndi gawo lalikulu, popeza tiyenera kudziwa magwero azosiyanitsa zazikulu zomwe zimakhudza chilungamo pamlingo wofunikira monga banja.
  • Ngakhale kutchuka ndi njira yosavuta yowerengera, Gini index sikugwirizana ndi malo a "kuwonongeka kowonjezera". Potanthauza izi tikutanthauza kuti kuwerengetsa komwe kumachitika pagulu linalake kapena magulu ang'onoang'ono sikuti nthawi zonse kumagwirizana ndi kufunikira kwa kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka kwa anthu onse pamagulu azandalama.
  • Kodi magwero azidziwitso zakuyesa kusalingana ndi ati? M'malingaliro, mabuku ndi zolemba zambiri zakuyeza kusalingana zimaganizira ndikupereka malingaliro omwe amaganiza kuti zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndizosavuta. Izi ndizosiyana pantchito yolembedwa, popeza pakuchita izi deta imasonkhanitsidwa kuchokera kumafukufuku omwe amachitika m'mabanja, momwe kuzindikira magawo oyang'anirako kumachitika kudzera gawo limodzi kapena angapo osankhidwa ndipo pamipata yambiri mabanja amasankhidwa ndi osafanana zotheka. Izi zikutanthauza kuti coefficient kwenikweni ndikungolingalira.

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