Chuma ndi chiyani

chuma chake ndi chiyani

Kufotokozera zomwe chuma sichili chapafupi. M'malo mwake, ngakhale ili ndi lingaliro, mawuwo ndiwowonjezera ndipo, kwa ambiri, ndi ovuta kumvetsetsa 100%, ngakhale kwa akatswiri azachuma.

Komabe, ngati nthawi zonse mumafuna dziwani momwe chuma chilili, cholinga chake ndi chiyani, ndi mitundu yanji yomwe ilipo ndi zina zake, ndiye kuphatikiza kumene takonza kukuthandizani kuti muchepetse chidwi chomwe mumamva pamutuwu.

Chuma ndi chiyani

chuma chake ndi chiyani

Malingaliro azachuma alipo ambiri. Zomwe ndizosavuta kumva osati zochuluka. Ngati tipita ku RAE ndikuyang'ana chuma, tanthauzo lomwe limatipatsa ndi ili:

"Sayansi yomwe imaphunzira njira zothandiza kwambiri kukwaniritsa zosowa za anthu, pogwiritsa ntchito zinthu zosowa."

Izi zikuwunikiranso nkhaniyi pang'ono, koma chowonadi ndichakuti pali malingaliro ambiri pazachuma. Zina mwazodziwika kwambiri ndi izi:

"Economics ndi kuphunzira zaumunthu pantchito yake ya tsiku ndi tsiku." A. Marshall.

"Economics ndi kafukufuku wamomwe mabungwe amagwiritsa ntchito zinthu zochepa kuti apange zinthu zamtengo wapatali ndikugawa pakati pa anthu osiyanasiyana." P. Samuelson (Wopambana Mphoto ya Nobel).

"Sayansi yachuma ndikuwunika kwamakhalidwe amunthu monga ubale pakati pamapeto ndi njira zomwe ndizosowa ndipo zimatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwina." L. Robbins.

Yotsirizayi ndi imodzi mwazomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pantchito zachuma.

Pomaliza, titha kunena choncho zachuma ndi chilango chomwe chimasanthula momwe katundu wopezeka kwa anthu amasamalidwira kuti akwaniritse zosowa. Nthawi yomweyo, imayang'aniranso kuwunika momwe anthu amachitira mokhudzana ndi katundu.

Mwachitsanzo, zachuma zikanakhala kafukufuku amene amachitika mgulu la anthu kuti apeze momwe amapangidwira kuti akwaniritse zosowa za anthu, pazofunikira zakuthupi ndi zosagwiritsidwa ntchito, kuthana ndi kupanga, kugawa, kugwiritsa ntchito komanso, Pomaliza , kusinthana kwa katundu ndi ntchito.

Makhalidwe azachuma

Mukawona matanthauzidwe angapo a momwe chuma chilili, chomwe chingamveke kwa inu ndikuti onse ali ndi mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana ofanana. Izi ndi:

  • Chitani zachuma ngati sayansi yasayansi. Izi ndichifukwa choti, mukazindikira, onse amalankhula za kafukufuku wamakhalidwe a anthu ngati gulu.
  • Phunzirani zomwe dziko lili nazo. Izi ndizosowa, ndipo zimadalira zosowa za munthu aliyense, komanso momwe amakhalira, kaya amaliza kapena kugawa ndikugwiritsa ntchito moyenera.
  • Lingalirani zosankha zachuma, makamaka chifukwa imawunika momwe munthu angakhalire ngati pali zochepa kapena zabwino zina.

Mumachokera kuti

Makhalidwe azachuma

Tsopano popeza muli ndi chidziwitso chambiri pazachuma, muyenera kudziwa komwe dzinali likuyambira, komanso chifukwa chake zidayamba. Kuti tichite izi, tiyenera kubwerera kuzinthu zakale zomwe zidali ku Mesopotamiya, Greece, Roma, Aarabu, China, Persian ndi India.

Zowonadi oyamba kugwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "chuma" anali Agiriki, amene amagwiritsa ntchito potchula kasamalidwe ka nyumba. Pakadali pano, afilosofi monga Plato kapena Aristotle adapanga matanthauzidwe oyamba azachuma pomwe, popita nthawi, lingaliro ili lidakwaniritsidwa. Mwachitsanzo, mu Middle Ages, panali mayina ambiri omwe adathandizira kudziwa kwawo komanso njira yawo yowonera sayansi iyi, monga Saint Thomas Aquinas, Ibn Khaldun, ndi ena.

Koma, kwenikweni, zachuma monga sayansi sizinatulukire mpaka zaka za XNUMXth. Panthawiyo Adam Smith anali "wolakwa" yemwe chuma chidalingaliridwa motere posindikiza buku lake, "The Wealth of Nations." M'malo mwake, akatswiri ambiri amafotokoza kuti kufalitsa izi kunali kubadwa kwachuma ngati sayansi yodziyimira payokha, yosagwirizana ndi nzeru zenizeni.

Kutanthauzira kumeneku kumadziwika lero monga chuma chamakedzana, ndipo ndichifukwa chakuti tsopano pali zovuta zingapo zachuma.

Mitundu yachuma

Mitundu yachuma

Pakati pazachuma, magawo osiyanasiyana amatha kusiyanitsidwa, mwachitsanzo, malingana ndi njira, malinga ndi malo ophunzirira, ma filosofi, ndi zina zambiri. Mwambiri, kodi chuma chomwe mumapeza ndi chiyani?

  • Microeconomics ndi Macroeconomics. Ndiwo malingaliro odziwika kwambiri ndipo amatanthauza zomwe anthu, makampani ndi maboma akuchita kuti akwaniritse zosowa zawo ndikuthana ndi kuchepa kwa katundu (microeconomics), kapena kafukufuku wamachitidwe amitundu ndi malonda, zochitika ndi mbiri yapadziko lonse lapansi ya seti yonse (macroeconomics).
  • Zopeka komanso zachuma. Gulu lina lalikulu ndilo lomwe limaphatikizapo chuma cha mitundu yolingalira (yopeka) ndi yomwe idakhazikitsidwa "zenizeni" ndikutsutsa malingaliro am'mbuyomu (empirical).
  • Zachibadwa komanso zabwino. Kusiyanaku kumakhazikitsidwa makamaka pazachuma. Pomwe oyamba amatsatira mosamalitsa malamulo amakhalidwe azachuma, koma chachiwiri zomwe amachita ndikugwiritsa ntchito kusintha kosintha anthu komanso anthu akusintha.
  • Orthodox ndi heterodox. Pali kusiyana pakati pa maphunziro. Loyamba limatanthawuza ubale wapakati pa kulingalira, munthuyo, ndi malire omwe alipo pakati pa awiriwo; pomwe lachiwiri likutiuza za mafunde omwe amapangitsa maphunziro awo kukhala m'mabungwe, mbiri komanso chikhalidwe cha anthu.
  • Chikhalidwe, chapakati, msika kapena chuma chosakanikirana. Kwa ambiri, ili ndiye gulu labwino kwambiri lazachuma, ndipo limakhazikitsidwa pamitundu inayi, kukhala:
    • Zachikhalidwe: ndizofunikira kwambiri, ndipo zimawunikira ubale pakati pa anthu ndi katundu ndi ntchito.
    • Kuyika pakati: amatchedwa chifukwa mphamvu imakhala ndi munthu (Boma) ndipo ndiyomwe imayang'anira zochitika zonse zachuma zomwe zimachitika.
    • Msika: siyilamuliridwa ndi Boma koma imayang'aniridwa potengera kupezeka ndi kufunika kwa katundu ndi ntchito.
    • Zosakanikirana: ndizophatikiza ziwiri mwazomwe tafotokozazi, zomwe zakonzedwa (kapena zapakati) ndi msika. Poterepa, ndi gawo limodzi lamalamulo aboma.

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